Aquatic Insects of Michigan

by Ethan Bright, Museum of Zoology Insect Division and School of Natural Resources and Environment
University of Michigan

Toggle Menu

Paraphaenocladius (Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae) of Michigan - Identification

Key to male imagines

1a a. Anal point bluntly to sharply triangular, or rounded, with setae and microtrichia to apex Paraphaenocladius pseudirritus Strenzke, spp. nearcticus
b. Cell m proximal to RM bare, at most with 3-16 setae
c. Virga absent
also: Cu with 0-6 setae; R with 9-22 setae; M3+4 with 0-23 setae; An bare; squama with 2-10 setae; C extension ends slightly proximal to apex of M3; LR1 0.52-0.72, LR3 0.61-0.68, AR 0.77-1.15
1b a. Anal point with bare apical area 7-47 Ám long, parallel-sided, spatulate or tapering, clearly longer than wide except occasionally when broadly spatulate 2
b. Cell m proximal to RM with 0-77 setae
c. Virga present or absent
 
2a(1b) a. Bare apex of anal point spatulate, 5-19 Ám wide at apex Paraphaenocladius impensus (Walker)
b. Squama with 7-10 setae
c. Virga present, consisting of about 20 spines, 7-12 Ám long
also: Cell m proximal to RM with 4-77 setae, anal lobe with 1-16 setae, Sc and M usually with setae
2b a. Bare apex of anal point parallel-sided or tapering, either 2-5 Ám wide or about 16 Ám wide at apex, when wide and parallel-sided then with a few apical setae, and virga absent 3
b. Squama with 0-7 setae
b. Virga present (except as noted in a above)
 
3a(2b) a. Cell m proximal to RM with 23-70 setae Paraphaenocladius exagitans (Johannsen)
b. Anal lobe of wing with 3-15 setae
c. Apex of anal point about 2-5 Ám wide, without setae on bare part, and usually with a more or less distinct median swelling
also: R with 22-49, R4+5 with 20-41, Cu with 20-49, M3+4 with 31-60, Cu1 with 18-40 setae; LR1 0.68-0.96
3b a. Cell m proximal to RM with 0-7 setae 4
b. Anal lobe of wing bare, without setae
c. Apex of anal point about 2-5 Ám wide
 
4a(3b) a. Squama bare Paraphaenocladius pusillus Sæther and Wang
b. AR about 0.35
c. Cu with 0-1, M3+4 with 7-8 setae
d. R with 4-5 setae
4b a. Squama with 3-6 setae Paraphaenocladius innasus Sæther and Wang
b. AR 0.43-0.84
c. Cu with 9-19 setae, M3+4 with 24-42 setae
d. R with 17-32 setae

Key to pupae

1a a. Anal lobe with 2 apical setae, the longest 79-120 Ám long 2
b. Wing sheath without nose
c. Exuviae less than 3.0 mm long
1b a. Anal lobe with 1 apical seta 41-68 Ám long 3
b. Wing sheath with or without nose and pearls
c. Exuviae about 3.6 mm long
 
2a(1a) a. Shorter apical seta of anal lobe 0.68-0.83x as long as the longer seta Paraphaenocladius pusillus Sæther and Wang
also: Caudal spines on abdominal tergites 3-8 or 4-8, and sternites 2-, 3-, or 4-7 on female, or sternites 2-, 3-, or 4-8 on male, set off from shagreen spinules; shorter apical seta of anal lobe 0.34-0.53x as wide basally as the longer seta; exuviae 1.8-1.9 mm long
2b a. Shorter apical seta of anal lobe 0.35-0.61x as long as the longer seta Paraphaenocladius pseudirritus Strenzke, spp. nearcticus
also: Basal seta of anal lobe present; pedes spurii B present but weak
 
3a(1b) a. Wing sheath without a nose and pearls Paraphaenocladius innasus Sæther and Wang
b. Exuviae about 3.6 mm long
3b a. Wing sheath with a nose and pearls 4
b. Exuviae shorter, about 2.1-3.4 mm long
also: Pedes spurii B weak; basal seta of anal lobe apparently absent
 
4a(3b) a. thoracic horn 180-219 Ám long, 3.13-4.00x as long as the apical seta of the anal lobe Paraphaenocladius impensus (Walker)
b. Pearls of wing sheath well developed
4b a. thoracic horn 84-169 Ám long, 1.40-2.77x as long as the apical seta of the anal lobe Paraphaenocladius exagitans (Johannsen)
b. Pearls of wing sheath present but weak

Key to fourth instar larvae

1a a. Median tooth of mentum single, with lateral notches Paraphaenocladius pseudirritus Strenzke, spp. nearcticus
b. Procercus 19-32 Ám high, 15-17 Ám wide, relatively well developed
c. Basal antennal segment 26-31 Ám long
1b a. Median tooth of mentum distinctly divided (if worn down and appearing single, then refer to character b below) 2
b. Procercus about 5-15 Ám high, 8-11 Ám wide; when procercus 15-23 Ám high, then the high median tooth of mentum is clearly divided
c. Basal antennal segment 12-20 Ám long
 
2a Postmentum and mandible both about 79 Ám long Paraphaenocladius pusillus Sæther and Wang
2b Postmentum about 86-124 Ám long, mandible 86-109 Ám long 3
 
3a(2b) a. Longer anal tubles much longer than posterior parapods Paraphaenocladius exagitans (Johannsen)
b. Median mental tooth weakly divided, often appearing single
c. Postmentum 86-111 Ám long
3b a. Longer anal tubles at most slightly longer than the posterior parapods, with 0-2 constrictions 4
b. Median mental tooth always distinctly divided even when worn
c. Postmentum about 113-124 Ám long
 
4a(3b) a. Premandible about 68 Ám long Paraphaenocladius impensus (Walker)
b. Median tooth of mentum without lateral notches
4b a. Premandible about 56 Ám long Paraphaenocladius innasus Sæther and Wang
b. Median tooth of mentum with lateral notches

Descriptions

Paraphaenocladius pseudoirritus Strenzke, 1950 (spp. nearcticus)

    Male Imago: (n = 10-12 except when otherwise stated). Total length 2.09-2.80, 2.27 mm. Wing length 1.21-1 61, 1.35 mm. Total length/wing length 1.53-1.76, 1.66. Wing length/length of profemur 2.63-2.79, 2.69. Yellowish brown to brown with darker vittae and pale scutellum to completely brown with humeral area and scutellum slightly more pale. Head. AR 0.77-1.15, 0.90. Ultimate flagellomere 281-425, 334 Ám long. Temporal setae 9-14, 12; including 3-7, 5 inner verticals; 2-5, 3 outer verticals; and 3-4, 4 postorbitals. Tentorium 109-123, 117 Ám long; 23-30, 28 Ám wide. Stipes 98-113,107 Ám long; 41-56, 48 Ám wide. Palpomeres lengths (in Ám): 21-33, 26; 33-40, 37; 70-86, 80; 75-94, 88; 113-151, 128. Thorax. Antepronotum with 4 setae. Dorsocentrals 12-20, 16; acrostichals 14-21, 17; prealars 5-6, 5. Scutellum with 6-10, 8 setae. Wing. VR 1.10-1.18, 1.15. Anal lobe slightly projecting. C extension 41-86, 63 Ám long, ending very slightly proximal to apex of M3+4. Cu1 slightly sinuate. C extension with 5-10, 8 non-marginal setae; Sc bare; R with 9-16,12 setae; R1 with 2-11,8 ; R4+5 with 8-20, 17; RM bare; M bare; M1+2 with 23-38, 30; M3+4 with 0-23, 13; Cu with bare; Cu1 with 0-16, 6; Pcu with 0-1, 0 setae; An bare. Cell m proximal to RM without setae; r3+4 with 84-170, 123; m1+2 with 42-125, 76; m3+4 with 2-38, 25; cu plus an with 0-1, 0 setae; anal lobe bare. Squama with 4-10, 8 setae. Legs. Spur of front tibia 26-45, 41 Ám long; spurs of middle tibia 19-24, 21 Ám and 12-21,17 Ám long; of hind tibia 37-47, 43 Ám and 12-19, 14 Ám long. Width at apex of front tibia 26-33, 29 Ám, of middle tibia 26-33, 30 Ám; of hind tibia 30-36,34 Ám. Comb of 8-12, 11 setae; shortest seta 19-26, 23 Ám; longest seta 35-41, 38 Ám long. Lengths (in Ám) and proportions of legs:

        femur tibia ta1 ta2 ta3 ta4 ta5 LR BV SV BR
      p1 441-595
      (502)
      478-666
      (549)
      300-454
      (377)
      188-284
      (226)
      131-189
      (156)
      84-122
      (99)
      66-84
      (66)
      0.65-0.72
      (0.68)
      2.40-2.73
      (2.61)
      2.69-2.97
      (2.84)
      2.4-3.2
      (3.0)
      p2 441-595
      (506)
      422-572
      (483)
      225-319
      (272)
      113-151
      (127)
      75-113
      (89)
      47-75
      (60)
      47-75
      (57)
      0.47-0.51
      (0.48)
      3.34-3.89
      (3.69)
      4.07-4.43
      (4.24)
      2.9-6.3
      (4.2)
      p3 478-657
      (543)
      506-680
      (567)
      159-236
      (186)
      103-151
      (120)
      103-151
      (120)
      56-95
      (75)
      56-84
      (64)
      0.62-0.68
      (0.65)
      3.02-3.42
      (3.33)
      2.89-3.15
      (2.99)
      4.6-7.8
      (5.9)

    Hypopygium. Anal point bluntly triangular; with 10-14, 12 setae on tergite including anal point and no bare apical area; laterostemite IX with 5-7, 6 setae. Phallapodeme 46-56, 51 Ám long; transverse sternapoderne 60-79, 70Ám long. Virga absent. Gonocoxite 153-193, 170 Ám long. Gonostylus 56-86, 68 Ám long; megaseta 9-12, 1O Ám long. HR 2.24-2.75, 2.54; HV 3.20-3.79, 3.36.

    Pupa (n = 4 except when otherwise stated). Total length of exuviae 2.36-2.55, 2.45 rnm. Exuviae transparent with very slight yellowish tint. Cephalothorax. Thoracic horn 180-225, 210 Ám long, 15-26, 19 Ám wide, 1.85-2.00(3)x as long as the longer terminal seta on anal lobe. Precomeal setae 56-86 Ám (3) long. Median antepronotals 75-1 13 Ám (3) long. Dorsocentrals each 19-56 Ám(3) long, distance between Dc1 and Dc2 23-41, 33 Ám, between Dc2 and Dc3 68-120, 91 Ám, between D3 and Dc4 30-45, 40 Ám. Wing sheath without nose, with 50-62(3) pearls. Abdomen. Tergite I bare, T II-VI with extensive coarse shagreen, less extensive on T VI, T VII-VIII with strong median and posterior shagreen, T IX with a few antenomedian spinules. Stemites I-III and IX bare, S IV-VIII with few posterior spinules. Shagreen grading over into small posterior spines distinct on T VI-VIII and S VI-VII (♀) or VIII (♂). Pedes spurii B present, but weak. Anal lobe with 1 basal seta 38-53 Ám (3) long, 0.7-0.8 Ám (3) wide; and 2 terminal setae 105-120 Ám (3) and 60-64 Ám (3) long, 3.8-4.0 Ám (3) and 1.2-3.0 Ám (3) wide; shorter terminal seta 0.40-0.61(3)x as long and 0.30-0.50(3)x as wide as longer seta. Apex of anal lobe with 5-11, 8 spines. Genital sac of male overreaches anal lobe by 30-38
    Ám (2).

    Fourth Instar Larva (n = 3 except when otherwise stated). Total length 4.35 mm (1). Head capsule length 0.21-0.25 mm. Head. Antenna as in P. pseudirritus s. str. Lengths of antennal segments (in Ám): 26-31,14-18, 3-5, 6-9, 4-5. AR 0.81-1.00. Basal antennal segment 9-11 Ám wide, blade 23-26 Ám long, accessory blade 4 Ám (1) long, distance from base to ring organ 7-12 Ám, to marks of setae 5-6 Ám and 17 Ám. Subapical style of second segment 5-9 Ám long, lauterbom organ 7 Ám long. Labrum and epipharyngeal area as in P. exagitam. Premandible 43-53 Ám long. Mandible 81-86 Ám long. Mentum as in figure, median tooth with lateral notches, 19-26 Ám wide. Abdomen. Procercus 19-26 Ám high; 15 Ám wide; with 6 anal setae including 1 strong and thick, 2 long and thin and 3 short; anal setae 94-154 Ám long. Supraanal seta 56-68 Ám (2) long, 0.27-0.72 (2) as long as anal setae. Ventral tubules 53 Ám (2) long with 1 constriction.

Paraphaenocladius exagitans (Johannsen), 1905

    Male Imago (n = 9-1 1 except when otherwise stated). Total length 1.99-2.55, 2.25 mm. Wing length 0.99-1.81, 1.28 mm (13). Total length/wing length 1.40-1.86, 1.65. Wing length/length of profemur 2.30-2.76, 2.45. Yellowish brown to brown with darker vittae and humeral area and scutellum pale. Head. AR 0.41-0.86, 0.65 (16). Ultimate flagellomere 169-368, 247 Ám (17) long. Temporal setae 11-15, 14; including 4-8, 6 inner verticals; 3-5, 4 outer verticals; and 2-5, 4 postorbitals. Clypeus with 6-11,10 setae. Tentorium 105-131, 118 Ám long; 23-34, 31 Ám wide. Stipes 93-132, 117 Ám long; 30-38, 34 Ám wide. Palpomeres lengths (in Ám): 21-33, 25; 28-40, 34; 86-105, 94; 93-113, 104; 113-170, 141. Thorax. Antepronotum with 4-8, 6 setae. Dorsocentrals 15-32, 21(13); acrostichals 19-20, 20; prealars 7-10, 8. Scutellum with 8-12, 9 setae. Wing. VR 1.13-1.21, 1.18 (14). Anal lobe not projecting. C extension 30-70, 50(14) Ám long, ending well proximal to apex of M3+4. Cu1 nearly straight. C extension with 7-20,15(12) non-marginal setae; Sc with 0-30, 17(15); R with 22-49,31; R1 with 15-38, 21, R4+5 with 20-40, 28; RM with 0-1, 0; M with 0-12, 6(16); M 1+2 with 61-90, 73; M3+4 with 31-60, 44; Cu with 20-49, 31; Cu1 with 22-40, 30; Pcu with 33-93, 55; An with 17-36, 27 setae. Cell m proximal to RM with 23-70, 44(16) setae; r3+4, m1+2, m 3+4a, and cu plus an each with more than 200 setae; anal lobe with 3-15, 9 setae. Squama with 2-7, 5 (14) setae. Legs. Spur of front tibia 33-56, 41 Ám long; spurs of middle tibia 23-34, 27 Ám and 15-26, 19 Ám long; of hind tibia 39-56, 46 Ám and 14-23, 18 Ám long. Width at apex of front tibia 28-36, 32 Ám, of middle tibia 30-38, 33 Ám; of hind tibia 35-41, 38 Ám. Comb of 8-13, 11 setae; shortest seta 19-30, 26 Ám; longest seta 34-53, 45 Ám long. Lengths (in Ám) and proportions of legs (n = 14 except when otherwise stated):

        femur tibia ta1 ta2 ta3 ta4 ta5 LR BV SV BR
      p1 403-656
      (533)

      413-750
      (568)

      328-572
      (452)
      188-319
      (247)
      141-225
      (177)
      84-141
      (113)
      56-75
      (67)
      0.76-0.86,
      (0.79)(31)
      2.30-2.80
      (2.56)
      2.17-2.58
      (2.43)
      2.7-4.1
      (3.5)
      p2 384666517 394-647
      (494)
      206-347
      (262)
      94-178
      (130)
      66-131
      (94)
      47-84
      (64)
      38-66
      (50)
      0.49-0.56
      (0.53)
      3.63-4.24
      (3.84)
      3.67-4.19
      (3.86)
      3.6-6.9
      (5.0)
      p3 394-722
      (532)
      450-825
      (574)
      309-553
      (399)
      150-272
      (194)
      66-188
      (128)
      56-113
      (80)
      47-75
      (60)
      0.67-0.71
      (0.68)
      3.18-3.57
      (3.28)
      2.61-2.81
      (2.77)
      5.5-7.8
      (6.9)

    Hypopygium. Anal point with more or less pronounced median swelling and bare, parallel-sided apex 9-19, 16 Ám long, 2-5, 3 Ám wide; 6-16, 12 setae on tergite including anal point; laterostemite IX with 4-8,7 setae. Phallapodeme 50-73, 65 Ám long; transverse sternapodeme 60-84, 74 Ám long. Virga consisting of about 15-20 spines, 6-12, 8 Ám long. Gonocoxite 150-174, 161 Ám long. Gonostylus 70-81,75 Ám long; megaseta 9-15, 11 Ám long. HR 1.86-2.37,2.21; HV2.85-3.57,3.09.

    Female Imago (n = 11-14 except when otherwise stated). Total length 1.59-2.08, 1.74 rnm. Wing length 0.92-1.65, 1.28 rnrn. Total length/wing length 1.24-1.81, 1.51. Wing length/length of profemur 2.26-2.59, 2.50. Head. AR 0.23-0.28, 0.26. Lengths of flagellomeres (in Ám): 53-83, 69; 42-64, 55; 43-68, 56; 36-64, 52; 44-68, 58. Temporal setae 8-15, 12; consisting of 3-7, 6 inner verticals; 2-5, 3 outer verticals and 2-4, 3 postorbitals. Clypeus with 9-15, 13 setae. Tentorium 75-113, 99 Ám long; 11-21, 16 Ám (9) wide. Stipes 75-116, 101 Ám long; 23-30, 26 Ám (6) wide. Palpomeres lengths (in Ám): 21-34, 27; 26-38, 33; 66-94, 82; 64-105, 88; 105-170, 131. Coronal suture 23-56 Ám (3) long or complete. Thorax. Antepronotum with 4-6, 5 setae. Dorsocentrals 21-45, 31; acrostichals 18-30, 24; prealars 6-12, 10. Scutellum with 8-13, 10 setae. Wing. VR 1.14-1.33, 1.21. C extension 30-76, 55 Ám long; ending well proximal to apex of M3+4. Cu1 nearly straight. C extension with 10-24, 18 non-marginal setae; Sc with 4-35, 19; R with 21-50, 34; R1 with 15-36, 25; R4+5 with 33-62, 47; RM with 0-3, 1; M with 2-18, 9; M1+2 with 60-110, 85 setae, M3+4 with 34-68, 49; Cu with 18-59, 31; Cu1 with 24-42, 33; Pcu with 32-103, 63; An with 16-44, 30 setae. Cell m proximal to RM with 30-100, 62 setae; r3+4, m1+2, m3+4, and cu plus an each with more than 300 setae; anal lobe with 11-20, 15 setae. Squama with 3-9, 7 setae. Legs. Spur of front tibia 30 Ám (1, sometimes absent?) long; spurs of middle tibia 15-32, 26 Ám and 11-23, 18 Ám long; of hind tibia 41-49, 44 Ám and 14-23, 19 Ám long. Width at apex of front tibia 26-34, 30 Ám, of middle tibia 30-38, 34 Ám; of hind tibia 34-42, 40 Ám. Comb of 9-12, 11 setae; shortest seta 23-28, 25 Ám; longest sera 38-45, 41 Ám long. Lengths (in Ám) and proportions of legs:

        femur tibia ta1 ta2 ta3 ta4 ta5 LR BV SV BR
      p1 359-581
      (481)
      378-625
      (512)
      260-431
      (363)
      137-325
      (192)
      99-159
      (134)
      86-113
      (93)
      47-75
      (63)
      0.64-0.68
      (0.67)
      2.66-3.00
      (2.81)
      2.55-2.84
      (2.74)
      2.0-4.3
      ( 2.9)
      p2 364-576
      (484)
      350-572
      (475)
      170-291
      (235)
      85-142
      (117)
      84-132
      (80)
      37-95
      (56)
      33-66
      (50)
      0.45-0.51
      (0.49)
      3.73-4.47
      (3.95)
      3.94-4.56
      (4.08)
      2.6-4.0
      (3.4)
      p3 383-638
      (517)
      425-698
      (574)
      274-496
      (382)
      128-227
      (182)
      85-142
      (117)
      47-128
      (78)
      38-75
      (59)
      0.64-0.68
      (0.67)
      3.14-3.89
      (3.38)
      2.80-3.00
      (2.86)
      3.7-6.5
      (5.0)

    Abdomen (n = 8). Number of setae on tergites I-VIII as: 12-24, 20; 22-44, 29; 25-49, 35; 24-55, 36; 25-51, 36; 24-41, 31; 20-36, 29; 18-33, 27. Number of setae on sternites I-VIII as: 0; 2-7, 4; 4-12, 10; 10-24, 16; 12-40, 25; 16-34, 26; 12-36, 28; 20-40, 33. Genitalia. Gonocoxite with 7-16, 13 setae; including 5-12, 8 long; 2-8, 5 short setae. Tergite IX usually well divided; with 9-28, 19 setae. Cercus 38-70, 50 Ám long. Seminal capsule 71-113, 91 Ám long; sclerotized in anterior 68-98, 82 Ám; 38-60, 53 Ám wide; 1.46-1.90, 1.70x as long as wide; 1.52-2.55, 1.83x as long as cercus. Notum 68-98, 85 Ám long.

    Pupa (n = 10-12 except when otherwise stated). Total length of exuviae 2.08-2.84,2.41 mm (18). Exuviae transparent with very slight yellowish greyish
    tint. Cephalothorax. Thoracic horn (Fig. 17A) 84-165, 115 Ám (22) long, 8-19, 15 Ám (22) wide; 1.47-2.62, 2.01 (15) times as long as terminal seta on anal lobe. Precorneal setae, median and lateral antepronotals 34-109, 59 Ám long. Dorsocentrals each 19-56, 30 Ám long, distance between Dc1 and Dc2 23-98, 73 Ám (19) (1 specimen 23 Ám, 138 Ám, the others 60-98 Ám); between Dc2 and D3 2-94, 24 Ám (19) (1 specimen 94 Ám, 1 64 Ám, the others 2-32 Ám); between Dc3 and Dc4 6-41, 21 Ám (18) (1 specimen 38 Ám, 141 Ám, the others 6-11 Ám). Wing sheath with nose, with 10-35, 25 (16) weak pearls. Abdomen. Tergite I bare or with very few anteriomedian spinules,TII-VI with extensive shagreen except laterally, T IX with a few anterior spinules. Stemites I-III bare, S IV with a few posterior spinules, SV with a few median and posterior spinules, S VII-VIII with stronger spinules. Shagreen grading over into small posterior spines distinct on T VI-VIII and S VI-VII (♀) or VIII (♂). Anal lobe with 1 terminal seta 49-68, 57 Ám (16) long and 0.7-1.5, 0.9 Ám (9) wide seta. Apex of anal lobe with 6-19, 12 (19) spines. Genital sac of male overreaches anal lobe by 75-105, 92Ám; of female ending 8-34, 23 Ám (7) short of apex of anal lobe.

    Fourth Instar Larva (n = 13-14 except when otherwise stated). Total length 2.84-3.83, 3.59 mm (9). Head capsule length 0.24-0.29, 0.27 mm. Head. Antenna as in figure. Lengths of antennal segments (in Ám): 12-20, 17; 9-13, 11; 2-5, 3; 5-8, 7; 4-5, 5. AR 0.5-0.84, 0.66. Basal antennal segment 8-14, 11 Ám wide; blade 21-28, 24 Ám long; accessory blade 5-9, 6 Ám long; ring organ 4-7, 6 Ám (8) from base; setal marks at 1-6, 3 Ám (8) and 6-12, 8 Ám (8) from base. Subapical style of second segment 5-7, 6 Ám (10) long; Lauterbom organ 7-9, 8 Ám (12) long. Labrum and epipharyngeal area as in figure. Premandible 53-60, 56 Ám long. Mandible 90-94, 92 Ám long. Mentum as in figure, N; median tooth weakly divided, often appearing single, without lateral notches; 18-28, 26 Ám wide. Abdomen. Posterior parapods 75-83 Ám (3) long. Procercus 9-15, 12 Ám (8) high; 8-11, 10 Ám (8) wide; with 5 anal setae including 2 stronger; anal setae 68-120, 84 Ám (8) long. Supraanal seta 68-120, 84 Ám (3) long, 0.34-0.45 (3) time as long as anal setae. Dorsal anal tubules 120-133 Ám (3) long, with 3 constrictions; ventral anal tubules 75-94 Ám (4) long, with 1-2 constrictions.

Paraphaenocladius impensus (Walker), 1856

    Male Imago (n = 9-11 except when otherwise stated). Total length 2.31-3.07, 2.66 Ám. Wing length 1.30-1.90, 1.67 mm (14). Total length/wing length 1.43-1.69, 1.54. Wing length/length of profemur 2.45-2.77,2.58. Blackish brown to brown with darker vittae and humeral area and scutellum pale. Head. AR 0.77-1.04, 0.93 (14). Ultimate flagellomere 308-454, 395 Ám (14) long. Temporal setae 12-17, 15; including 5-10, 7 inner verticals; 3-6,4 outer verticals; and 2-6, 4 postorbitals. Clypeus with 9-13, 11 setae.Tentorium 131-163, 146 Ám long; 30-41, 35 Ám wide. Stipes 109-163, 137 Ám long; 41-64, 53 Ám wide. Palpomeres lengths (in Ám): 23-38, 31; 38-51, 45; 83-121, 109; 94-139, 118; 100-202, 162 (8). Thorax. Antepronotum with 4-12, 7 setae. Dorsocentrals 21-35, 27; acrostichals 22-33, 26 (7); prealars 7-11, 9. Scutellum with 10-14, 12 setae. Wing. VR 1.14-1.23, 1.18. Anal lobe weak. C extension 38-81, 52 Ám long, ending well proximal to apex of M3+4. CU1 slightly to distinctly sinuate. C extension with 6-22, 11 non-marginal setae; Sc with 0-16, 6; R with 26-45, 36 setae; R1 with 15-33, 23, R4+5 with 23-60, 39; RM with 0-1, 0; M with 0-17, 7; M1+2 with 60-112, 90, M3+4 with 36-78, 56; Cu with 22-42, 32; Cu1 with 26-49, 37; Pcu with 14-91, 54; An with 27-39, 32 setae. Cell m proximal to RM with 9-66, 39 setae; r3+4, m1+2, m3+4, and cu plus an each with more than 200 setae; anal lobe with 1-1 5, 6 setae. Squama with 7-10, 8 setae. Legs. Spur of front tibia 45-68, 54 Ám long; spurs of middle tibia 23-34, 30 Ám (8) and 19-23, 22 Ám (8)
    long; of hind tibia 41-71, 56 Ám and 19-28, 22 Ám (8) long. Width at apex of front tibia 30-41, 36 Ám, of middle tibia 28-41, 37Ám; of hind tibia 36-49, 44 Ám. Comb of 9-12,11 (8) setae; shortest seta 26-30, 28 Ám (8); longest seta 38-56, 49 Ám (8) long. Lengths (in Ám) and proportions of legs (n = 6-10):

        femur tibia ta1 ta2 ta3 ta4 ta5 LR BV SV BR
      p1 501-775
      (619)
      551-841
      (717)
      402-405
      (524)
      227-331
      (285)
      165-236
      (207)
      109-151
      (133)
      66-103
      (80)
      0.68-0.72
      (0.71)
      2.58-2.86
      (2.72)
      2.60-2.79
      (2.67)
      3.3-4.4
      (3.5)
      p2 491-751
      (642)
      473-747
      (634)
      250-369
      (320)
      132-189
      (164)
      90-132
      (115)
      57-90
      (82)
      52-75
      (62)
      0.47-0.53
      (0.51)
      3.67-3.92
      (3.79)
      3.84-4.18
      (3.97)
      3.0-5.2
      (4.0)
      p3 510-822
      (701)
      576-921
      (783)
      387-452
      (530)
      189-298
      (255)
      128-198
      (171)
      76-123
      (106)
      57-103
      (75)
      0.64-0.71
      (0.68)
      3.19-3.45
      (3.32)
      2.67-2.98
      (2.80)
      5.2-7.3
      (6.4)

    Hypopygium. Anal point with bare, spatulate apex 13-30, 21 Ám long, 7-13, 8 Ám wide; 9-19, 15 setae on tergite including anal point; laterosternite IX with 4-10, 7 setae. Phallapodeme 64-84, 76 Ám long; transverse stemapodeme 75-105, 91 Ám
    long. Virga consisting of about 20 spines, 7-12, 10 Ám long. Gonocoxite 158-209, 188 Ám long. Gonostylus 71-98, 86 Ám long; megaseta 9-13, 11 Ám long. HR 2.00-2.43, 2.23; HV 2.73-3.57, 3.07.

    Female Imago (n = 1). Total length not measurable. Wing length 1.55 mm. Wing length/llength of profemur 2.69. Head as in figure. AR 0.26. Lengths of flagellomeres (in Ám): 86, 68, 71, 60, 71. Temporal setae consisting of 5 inner verticals, 6 outer verticals, and 2 postorbitals. Clypeus with 11 setae. Tentorium 128 Ám long, 15 Ám wide. Stipes 124 Ám long, 26 Ám wide. Palpomeres lengths not measurable. Coronal suture complete. Thorax. Antepronoturn with 7 setae. Dorsocentrals more than 30, acrostichals 30, prealars more than 4. Scutellum with 12 setae. Wing. VR 1.18. C extension 75 Ám long, ending slightly proximal to apex of M3+4. C extension with about 20 non-marginal setae; Sc with 18, R with 43, R1
    with 34, R4+5 with 73, RM with 3, M with 17, with 110, M3+4 with 60, CU with 48, Cu1 with 63, Pcu with 95, An with 46 setae. Cell m proximal to RM with 73 setae; r3+4, m1+2, m3+4, and cu plus an each with more than 200 setae. Squama with 8 setae. Legs. Spur of front tibia lost, spurs of middle tibia 23 Ám and 19 Ám long, of hind tibia 45 Ám and 19 Ám long. Width at apex of front tibia and middle tibia each
    41 Ám, of hind tibia 45 Ám. Comb of 10 setae, 32-49 Ám long. Lengths (in Ám) and proportions of legs:

        femur tibia ta1 ta2 ta3 ta4 ta5 LR BV SV BR
      p1 576 633 416 232 161 - - 0.66 - 2.91 -
      p2 595 576 288 146 95 61 47 0.50 4.18 4.07 -
      p3 624 690 - - - - - - - - -

    Abdomen. Number of setae on tergites VI-VIII as: 34, 34, 24. Number of setae on sternite VII 28, on VIII 45. Genitalia (as in figure). Gonocoxite with 15 setae, including 10 long, 5 short setae. Tergite IX weakly divided, with 20 setae. Cercus 62 Ám long. Seminal capsule 90 Ám long, sclerotized in anterior 79 Ám, 60
    Ám wide, 1.50x as long as wide, 1.45x as long as cercus. Notum 83 Ám long.

    Pupa (n = 4-5 except when otherwise stated). Total length of exuviae 2.74-3.35, 2.99 mm. Exuviae transparent with very slight yellowish tint. Cephalothorax. Thoracic horn 180-219, 194 Ám long; 15-23, 18 Ám wide; 3.13-4.00 (3) x as long as terminal seta on anal lobe. Precomeal setae, median and lateral antepronotals each 60-98, 70 Ám long. Dorsocentrals each 19-60, 31 Ám long; distance between Dc1 and Dc2 56-118, 99 Ám (1 specimen 56 Ám, the others 105-118 Ám); between Dc2 and Dc3 13-75, 31 Ám, (1 specimen 75 Ám, the others 13-23 Ám); between Dc3 and Dc4 15-23, 19 Ám. Wing sheath with nose, with 45-60, 51 pearls. Abdomen. Tergite I bare, TII-WII with extensive shagreen, only slightly lessextensive on VII and VIII,T IX with anteriomedian spinules. Sternites I-III bare, S IV and V with posteriomedian spinules, S VII and VIIl with a few posteriomedian spinules. Shagreen grading over into small posterior spines distinct on T VI-VTII and indistinct on S VI-VII (female) or VIII (male). Anal lobe with 1 terminal seta 45-60 Ám (2) long and about 0.7 Ám (2) wide seta. Apex of anal lobe with 16-22, 18 spines. Genital sac of male overreaches anal lobe by 99 Ám (1); of female ending 15-34, 23 Ám short of apex of anal lobe.

    Fourth Instar Larva (n = 1). Total length 4.42 mm. Head capsule length 0.31 mm. Head. Antenna as in figure. Lengths of antennal segments (in Ám): 17, 14, 4, 6, 5. AR 0.58. Basal antennal segment 14 Ám wide, blade 36 Ám long. Subapical style of second segment 7 Ám long, lauterborn organ 7 Ám long. Labrum and epipharyngeal area as in P. exagitans. Premandible 68 Ám long. Mandible 114 Ám long, with 5 branches in setae intema. Mentum as in figure, median tooth divided, without lateral notches, 26 Ám wide. Abdomen. Posterior parapods 83 Ám long. Procercus 11 Ám high, 11 Ám wide, with 5 anal setae including 2 stronger, anal setae and supraanal seta not measureable. Anal tubules about 83 Ám long.

Paraphaenocladius innasus Sæther and Wang 1995

    Male Imago: (n = 9-13). Total length 2.08-3.22, 2.54 mm. Wing length 1.18-1.58, 1.39 mm. Total length/wing length 1.53-2.11,1.81. Wing length/length of profemur 2.27-2.71, 2.46. Yellowish brown with dark vittae and humeral area and scutellum slightly paler. Head. AR 0.43-0.84, 0.72. Ultimate flagellomere 181-344, 286 Ám long. Temporal setae 10-17, 12; including 4-7, 5 inner verticals; 2-6 , 4 outer verticals; and 3-5, 4 postorbitals. Clypeus with 4-12, 8 setae. Tentorium 105-137, 123 Ám long; 23-33, 28 Ám wide. Stipes 109-137, 123 Ám long; 28-49, 41 Ám wide. Palpomeres lengths (in Ám): 16-34,26; 23-49, 36; 49-107, 89; 58-114, 95; 84-173, 135. Thorax. Antepronotum with 2-6, 4 setae. Dorsocentrals 16-27, 21; acrostichals 13-17, 15; prealars 5-10, 7. Scutellum with 8-12, 9 setae. Wing. VR 1.14-1.20, 1.17. Anal lobe not projecting. C extension 70, 41 Ám long, ending well proximal to apex of M3+4. Cu1 slightly to distinctly sinuate. C extension with 3-6, 5 non-marginal setae; Sc bare; R with 17-32, 24 setae; R1 with7-17, 12; R4+5 with 17-25, 21 setae; RM and M bare; M1+2 with 42-70, 53; M3+4 with 24-42, 33; Cu with 9-19, 15; Cu1 with 14-28, 22; Pcu with 4-18, 9; An with 15-26, 21 setae. Cell m proximal to RM with 0-7 setae; r3+4 and m1+2 each with more than 200; m3+4 with 65-125, 83; cu plus an with 30-142, 80 setae; anal lobe bare. Squama with 4-11, 6 setae. Legs. Spur of front tibia 20-49, 39 Ám long; spurs of middle tibia 24-30, 22 Ám and 12-19,16 Ám long; of hind tibia 40-56, 48 Ám and 14-19, 16 Ám long. Width at apex of front tibia 15-37, 29 Ám, of middle tibia 28-40, 34 Ám; of hind tibia 35-47,40 Ám. Comb of 11-13, 13 setae; shortest seta 26-35, 28 Ám; longest seta 35-51, 43 Ám long. Lengths (in Ám) and proportions of legs:

        femur tibia ta1 ta2 ta3 ta4 ta5 LR BV SV BR
      p1 488-638,
      (565)
      526-690
      (622)
      347-488
      (423)
      203-272
      (234)
      150-206
      (178)
      94-141
      (117)
      75-94
      (81)
      0.66-0.72
      (0.69)
      2.45-3.03
      (2.62)
      2.63-2.95
      (2.79)
      2.7-4.0
      (3.2)
      p2 478-647,
      (554)
      478-609
      (548)
      225-319
      (272)
      113-159
      (137)
      75-113
      (97)
      56-84
      (73)
      56-84
      (69)
      0.46-0.53
      (0.49)
      3.41-3.97
      (3.66)
      3.69-4.40
      (4.07)
      3.1-6.0
      (4.1)
      p3 506-703
      ( 610)
      544-756
      (670)
      347-529
      (460)
      178-253
      (221)
      113-170
      (149)
      75-122
      (100)
      66-103
      (80)
      0.64-0.70
      (0.69)
      2.99-3.24
      (3.17)
      2.31-3.03
      (2.75)
      4.4-7.0
      (5.6)

    Hypopygium. Anal point with bare apical point 12-16,14 Ám long, 2-5, 3 Ám wide; with 8-17, 12 setae at base; laterosternite IX with 4-9, 6 setae. Phallapodeme 49-70, 61 Ám long; transverse sternapodeme 60-81, 70 Ám long. Virga of more than 20 spines, about 6-7 Ám long. Gonocoxite 137-184, 165 Ám long. Gonostylus 60-93, 75 Ám long; megaseta 7-10, 9 Ám long. HR-1.93-2.47, 2.21; HV 2.99-4.31, 3.41.

    Pupa (n=1). Total length of exuvia 3.59 mm. Exuviae transparent with slight yellowish tint. Cephalothorax. Thoracic horn 135 Ám long, 23 Ám wide, 2.40x as long as longer terminal seta on anal lobe. Precorneal setae 56-83 Ám long. Median antepronotals 38 and 86 Ám long, lateral antepronotals not measurable. Dorsocentrals each 34-45 Ám long, distance between Dc1 and Dc2 124 Ám, between Dc2 and Dc3 8 Ám , between Dc3 and Dc4 13 Ám. Wing sheath without nose and pearls. Abdomen. Tergite I bare, TII-VIII with extensive shagreen, T VII-VIII with weaker and more sparse shagreen, T IX with anteriomedian shagreen. Sternites I, II and IX bare, S III-IV with posteriomedian shagreen, S V-VIII with median shagreen. Shagreen grading over into small posterior spines distinct on T VI-VIII and S VII-VIII (♂). Anal lobe with 1 terminal setae 56 Ám long, 0.8 Ám wide. Apex of anal lobe with 12 spines. Genital sac of male overreaches anal lobe by 131 Ám.

Paraphaenocladius pusillus Sæther and Wang 1995

      Male Imago: (n = 2-3 except when otherwise stated). Total length 1.50-1.58 mm. Wing length 0.86-0.88 mm. Total length/wing length 1.82-1.83. Wing Length/length of profemur 2.42-2.55. Yellowish brown with dark vittae and humeral area and scutellum slightly paler. Head. AR 0.35-0.36. Ultimate flagellomere 129-133 Ám long. Temporal setae 9-10, including 5 inner verticals, 2 outerverticals, and 2-3 postorbitals. Clypeus with 8 setae. Tentorium 81-94 Ám long, 19 Ám wide. Stipes 63-79 Ám long, 19-26 Ámwide. Palpomeres lengths (in Ám): 21-23,26-34,51-53,70-73,105. Thorax. Antepronotum with 5 setae. Dorsocentrals 12-13, acrostichals 10-13, prealars 5. Scutellum with 5 setae. Wing. VR 1.11-1.14. Anal lobe reduced, wing nearly cuneiform. C extension 52-60 Ám long, ending well proximal to apex of M3+4. Cu1 slightly sinuate. C extension with 4 non-marginal setae, Sc bare, R with 11-12 setae, R1 with 4-5, R4+5 with 12-14 setae, RM and M bare, M1+2 with 25-26 setae, M3+4 with 7-8, Cu with 0-1, Cu1 with 11, Pcu with 0-1, An with 6-7 setae. Cell m proximal to RM bare, r3+4 with 65-121 setae, m1+2 with 67-70, m3+4 with 19-27, cu plus an with 27-28 setae, anal lobe bare. Squama bare. Legs. Lengths (in Ám) and proportions of legs:

        femur tibia ta1 ta2 ta3 ta4 ta5 LR BV SV BR
      p1 345-356 384-387 253-255 150-151 66-71 66-71 47-56 0.66 2.65-2.68 3.31-3.50 2.3-2.6
      p2 340-356 331-338 150-151 84-85 56-57 33-38 28-38 0.44-0.46 3.91-4.05 4.44-4.63 3.9-4.2
      p3 350-356 369-375 225-227 113 75-76 43-47 38.-43 0.60-0.62 3.45-3.52 3.17-3.25 5.7-6.7

      Spur of front tibia 26 Ám long, spurs of middle tibia 23 Ám and 11-14 Ám long, of hind tibia 33-38 Ám and 15-16 Ám long. Width at apex of front tibia 23-26 Ám, of middle tibia 23 Ám, of hind tibia 28-30 Ám. Comb of 10-12 setae, 19-30 Ám long. Hypopygium. Anal point with bare apical point 7 Ám long 3 Ám wide, with 7 setae at base; laterosternite IX with 3 setae. Phallapodeme 40-45 Ám long, transverse sternapodeme 45-47 Ám long. Virga of 9-12 spines, 3-5 Ám long. Gonocoxite 101-112 Ám long. Gonostylus 53-58 Ám long, megaseta 9-13 Ám long. HR 1.93-2.09, HV 2.83-2.98.

      Pupa (n = 1-2). Total length of exuviae 1.84-1.90 Ám. Exuviae transparent. Cephalothorax. Thoracic horn 131-150 Ám long, 17-19 Ámm wide, 1.52-1.74x as long as longer terminal seta on anal lobe. Precorneal setae 56-48 Ám long. Median antepronotals 68-75 Ám long, lateral antepronotals 38 Ám long. Dorsocentrals each 19-30 Ám long, distance between Dcl and Dc2 13-26 Ám, between Dc2 and Dc3 34-58 Ám, between Dc3 and Dc4 36-43 Ám. Wing sheath without nose, with 16-20 very weak, but large pearls. Abdomen. Tergite I bare, T II-VI with extensive coarse shagreen, T VII-VIII with weaker and more sparse shagreen, T IX with weak anteriomedian shagreen. Stemites I-III and IX bare, S IV-VIII with median shagreen, relatively extensive on VIII. Shagreen grading over into small posterior spines distinct on T VI-VIII and S VI-VIE (♀). Anal lobe with 1 basal seta 11 Ám long, and 2 terminal setae 86 Ám and 60 Ám long, 3.0 Ám and 1.5 Ám wide; shorter terminal seta 0.70x as long and 0.50x as wide as longer seta. Apex of anal lobe with 8-9 spines. Genital sac of male overreaches anal lobe by 32-43 Ám.

      Fourth Instar Larva (n =1). Total length 2.60 rnm. Head capsule length 0.23 mm. Head. Antenna as in figure. Lengths of antennal segments (in Ám): 19, 10, 4, 6, 4. AR 0.90. Basal antenna 10 Ám wide, blade 22 Ám long, accessory blade not measurable. Subapical style of second segment 7 Ám long, Lauterborn organ 6 Ám long. Labrum and epiphqngeal area as in P. exagitans. Prernandible 47 Ám long. Mandible 79 Ám long. Mentum as in figure, median tooth divided, 18 Ám wide. Abdomen. Posterior parapods 75 Ám long. Procercus 15 Ám high, 11 Ám wide; with 6 anal setae including 2 stronger; anal setae 150 Ám long. Supraanal seta 41 Ám long, 0.28x as long as anal setae. Anal tubules not measurable.

    References

    Sæther OA, Wang X. 1995. Revision of the genus Paraphaenocladius Thienemann, 1924 of the world (Diptera: Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae). Entomologica scandinavica Supplement 48:3-69.

    Page created: February 8, 2006 - Last updated: November 9, 2013 (EB)