Aquatic Insects of Michigan

by Ethan Bright, Museum of Zoology Insect Division and School of Natural Resources and Environment
University of Michigan

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Culicidae Meigen, 1818: xxxiii - Mosquitoes

This information is drawn from literary sources, including Cassani and Newson (1980), which comprehensively surveyed records in collections and literature up to 1980, and Wilmot et al. 1987, 1992 and Wood et al. 1979. Taxonomy and distribution information has been recently updated by Darsie and Ward (2005), and locally by Wilmot (2012). Taxonomic instability in the large genus Aedes is briefly discussed below.

Currently there are 62 species in 10 genera of mosquitoes documented in Michigan, with another 5 species that may occur based on their known distribution. Genera are denoted in green; species denoted in bold blue have been recorded in Michigan; other species denoted in black bold are expected to occur based on their known distribution. You can use the Find function in your web browser to locate families, genera, and species. Synonomous species (indented) are listed below the current valid species (denoted in bold) with its taxonomic status indicated.

    Aedes Meigen, 1818: 13
      [Note: This genus, containing a great number of species and many important vectors of arboviruses and pathogens, has a classification within Aedini that has seen considerable flux. Work on morphology by Reinert, Harbach and Kitching (2000, 2004, 2006, 2009) elevated a number of subgenera, including the large group of Ochlerotatus, to genus. This proposal, however, was not universally accepted, often for utilitarian reasons but increasingly on the reanalysis of the cladistic methodology that questioned their classification scheme (Wilkerson et al. 2015). The conservative approach in retaining species in Aedes is followed by many researchers and organizations (e.g., Walter Reed Systematics Unit), and is followed below, until at least additional analyses of other life stages and molecular data can hopefully produce a more robustly supported classification.]

      Aedes (Ochlerotatus) aboriginis Dyar, 1917b: 99 Aedes - Cassani & Newson 1980: 357
      Aedes (Ochlerotatus) abserratus (Felt & Young, 1904: 312 as Culex) - Cassani & Newson 1980: 358
        (syn.) Aedes centrotus Howard, Dyar & Knab, 1917: 747
        (syn.) Aedes dysanor Dyar, 1921b: 70
        (syn.) Aedes implacabilis, authors before 1954, not Walker, 1848
      Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1894: 20 as Culex) - Moore 1999, Wilmot 2012 [non-native]
      Aedes (Georgecraigius) atropalpus (Coquillett, 1902a: 292 as Culex) - Wilmot et al. 1992: 358
      Aedes (Ochlerotatus) aurifer (Coquillett, 1903a: 255 as Culex) - Cassani & Newson 1980: 358
      Aedes (Ochlerotatus) campestris Dyar & Knab, 1907b: 213 - Cassani & Newson 1980: 358
        (syn.) Aedes callithotrys Dyar, 1920: 16
      Aedes (Ochlerotatus) canadensis (Theobald, 1901b: 3 as Culex) - Cassani & Newson 1980: 358
        (syn.) Culex nivitarsis Coquillett, 1904c: 168
      Aedes (Aedes) cinereus Meigen, 1818: 13- Cassani & Newson 1980: 356
        (syn.) Aedes fuscus Osten Sacken, 1877
        (syn.) Culex pallidohirta Grossbeck, 1905
      Aedes (Ochlerotatus) communis (De Geer, 1776: 316 as Culex - Cassani & Newson 1980: 358-359
        (syn.) Culex lazarensis Felt & Young, 1904: 312
        (syn.) Culex borealis Ludlow, 1911: 178
        (syn.) Aedes tahoensis Dyar, 1916: 82
        (syn.) Aedes altiusculus Dyar, 1917a: 166
        (syn.) Aedes prolixus Dyar, 1922: 2
      Aedes (Ochlerotatus) decticus Howard, Dyar & Knab, 1917: 737 - Cassani & Newson 1980: 359
        (syn.) Aedes pseudodiantaeus Smith, 1952: 21
      Aedes (Ochlerotatus) diantaeus Howard, Dyar & Knab, 1913: pl.24, fig. 167 - Cassani & Newson 1980: 359
      Aedes (Ochlerotatus) dorsalis (Meigen, 1830: 242 as Culex) - Cassani & Newson 1980: 359
        (syn.) Culex curriei Coquillett, 1901: 259
        (syn.) Culex onondagensis Felt, 1904: 304
        (syn.) Culex lativittatus Coquillett, 1906: 109
        (syn.) Aedes quaylei Dyar & Knab, 1906b: 202
        (syn.) Aedes mediolineata Ludlow, 1907: 129
      Aedes (Ochlerotatus) dupreei (Coquillett, 1904a: 10 as Culex) - Cassani & Newson 1980: 359; Darsie and Ward 2005: 243
      Aedes (Ochlerotatus) euedes Howard, Dyar & Knab, 1913: pl.28, fig.191 - Cassani & Newson 1980: 359
        (syn.) Aedes barri Rueger, 1958: 34
      Aedes (Ochlerotatus) excrucians (Walker, 1856: 429 as Culex) - Cassani & Newson 1980: 359
        (syn.) Culex abfitchii Felt, 1904: 381
        (syn.) Culex siphonalis Grossbeck, 1904a: 332
        (syn.) Aedes sansoni Dyar & Knab, 1909a: 102
      Aedes (Ochlerotatus) fitchii (Felt & Young, 1904: 312 as Culex) - Cassani & Newson 1980: 359
        (syn.) Aedes palustris Dyar, 1916: 89
        (syn.) Aedes mimesis Dyar, 1917b: 116
      Aedes (Ochlerotatus) flavescens Müller, 1764: 87 - Cassani & Newson 1980: 359-360
        (syn.) Culex fletcheri Coquillett, 1902c: 84
      Aedes (Ochlerotatus) grossbecki Dyar & Knab, 1906b: 201 - Cassani & Newson 1980: 360
        (syn.) Culex sylvicola Grossbeck, 1906: 129
      Aedes (uncertain) hendersoni Cockerell, 1918: 199 (as triseriatus var.) - Cassani & Newson 1980: 361
        (syn.) Aedes triseriatus, authors prior to 1960, not Say, 1823
      Aedes (Ochlerotatus) impiger (Walker, 1848: 6 as Culex) - Cassani & Newson 1980: 360
        (syn.) Aedes nearcticus Dyar, 1919a: 32
      Aedes (Ochlerotatus) implicatus Vockeroth, 1954: 110 - Cassani & Newson 1980: 360
        (syn.) Aedes impiger, of authors prior to 1954, not Walker, 1848: 6
      Aedes (Ochlerotatus) intrudens Dyar, 1919b: 23 - Cassani & Newson 1980: 360
      Aedes (Hulecoeteomyia) japonicus (Theobald, 1901a as Culex) - Wilmot 2012 [non-native, introduced]
        (syn.) Aedes bisanensis Suzuki, Tanimura, Miyagawa and Murata, 1953: 8
        (syn.) Aedes eucleptes Dyar, 1921c: 147
        (syn.) Aedes tokushimaensis Tanimura, 1952: 176
      Aedes (Ochlerotatus) pionips Dyar, 1919b: 19 - Cassani & Newson 1980: 360
      Aedes (Ochlerotatus) provocans (Walker, 1848: 7 as Culex - Cassani & Newson 1980: 360
        (syn.) Culex trichurus Dyar, 1904a: 170
        (syn.) Culex cinereoborealis Felt & Young, 1904: 312
        (syn.) Aedes pagetonotum Dyar & Knab, 1909b: 253
        (syn.) Aedes poliochros Dyar, 1919b: 35
      Aedes (Ochlerotatus) pullatus (Coquillett, 1904c: 168 as Culex) - Cassani & Newson 1980: 360
        (syn.) Aedes acrophilus Dyar, 1917c: 127
        (syn.) Aedes pearyi Dyar and Shannon, 1925: 78
      Aedes (Ochlerotatus) punctor (Kirby, 1837: 309 as Culex) - Cassani & Newson 1980: 360
        (syn.) Culex implacabilis Walker, 1848: 7
        (syn.) Culicelsa auroides Felt, 1905b: 449
      Aedes (Ochlerotatus) riparius Dyar & Knab, 1907b: 213 - Cassani & Newson 1980: 360
      Aedes (Ochlerotatus) sollicitans (Walker, 1856: 427 as Culex) - Cassani & Newson 1980: 360-361; however, Wilmot 2012 notes active extirpation efforts have been successful in Midland Co.
      Aedes (Ochlerotatus) spencerii (Theobald, 1901b: 99 as Culex) - Cassani & Newson 1980: 361
        (syn.) Grabhamia spencerii var. idahoensis Theobald, 1903a: 250
      Aedes (Ochlerotatus) sticticus (Meigen, 1838: 1 as Culex) - Cassani & Newson 1980: 361
        (syn.) Culex hirsuteron Theobald, 1901b: 98
        (syn.) Culex pretans Grossbeck, 1904b: 332
        (syn.) Culex aestivalis Dyar, 1904b: 245 (syn.) Aedes aldrichi Dyar & Knab, 1908: 57
        (syn.) Aedes gonimus Dyar & Knab, 1918a: 165
        (syn.) Aedes vinnipegensis Dyar, 1919b: 34
        (syn.) Aedes lateralis authors, not Meigen
      Aedes (Ochlerotatus) stimulans (Walker, 1848: 4 as Culex) - Cassani & Newson 1980: 361
        (syn.) Culex subcantans Felt, 1905b: 474
      Aedes (Ochlerotatus) thibaulti Dyar & Knab, 1910: 174 - IL, OH, ON (associated with basal cavities in Nyssa sylvatica)
      Aedes (uncertain) triseriatus (Say, 1823: 12 as Culex) - Cassani & Newson 1980: 362; Wilmot et al. 1992
        (syn.) Finlaya nigra Ludlow, 1905: 387
      Aedes (Ochlerotatus) trivittatus (Coquillett, 1902b: 193 as Culex) - Cassani & Newson 1980: 361
        (syn.) Culex inconspicuus Grossbeck, 1904b: 332
      Aedes (Aedimorphus) vexans (Meigen, 1830: 241 as Culex) - Cassani & Newson 1980: 357
        (syn.) Culex sylvestris Theobald, 1901a: 406
        (syn.) Culex montcalmi Blanchard, 1905: 307
        (syn.) Aedes euochrus Howard, Dyar & Knab, 1917: 716

    Anopheles Meigen, 1818: 10

      Anopheles (Anopheles) barberi Coquillett, 1903b: 310 - Cassani & Newson 1980: 362
      Anopheles (Anopheles) crucians Wiedemann, 1828: 12 - Cassani & Newson 1980: 362
      Anopheles (Anopheles) earlei Vargas, 1943: 9 - Cassani & Newson 1980: 362
        (syn.) Anopheles maculipennis Hearle, 1927
        (syn.) Anopheles maculipennis occidentalis (in part) Aitken, 1945
      Anopheles (Anopheles) perplexens Ludlow, 1907: 267 - Wilmot et al. 1987
      Anopheles (Anopheles) punctipennis (Say, 1823: 9 as Culex) - Cassani & Newson 1980: 362
        (syn.) Culex hyemalis Fitch, 1847: 281
      Anopheles (Anopheles) quadrimaculatus Say, 1824: 356 - Cassani & Newson 1980: 362-363
        (syn.) Anopheles annulimanus Wulp, 1867: 129
      Anopheles (Anopheles) walkeri Theobald, 1901a: 199 - Cassani & Newson 1980: 363

    Coquillettidia Dyar, 1905: 47
      Coquillettidia perturbans (Walker, 1856: 428 as Culex) - Cassani & Newson 1980: 363
        (syn.) Culex testaceus van der Wulp, 1867: 128
        (syn.) Culex ochropus Dyar & Knab, 1907a: 100

    Culex Linnaeus, 1758: 602
      Culex (Melanoconion) erraticus (Dyar & Knab, 1906c: 224 as Mochlostyrax) - Cassani & Newson 1980: 364
        (syn.) Culex egberti Dyar & Knab, 1907b: 214
        (syn.) Culex peribleptus Dyar & Knab, 1918b: 181
        (syn.) Culex pose Dyar & Knab, 1918b: 182
        (syn.) Culex degustator Dyar, 1921a: 39
        (syn.) Culex homoepas Dyar & Ludlow, 1921: 46
      Culex (Culex) pipiens Linnaeus, 1758: 602 - Cassani & Newson 1980: 363-364
        (syn.) Culex consobrinus Robineau-Desvoidy, 1827: 408
      Culex (Culex) restuans Theobald, 1901b: 142 - Cassani & Newson 1980: 364
        (syn.) Culex brahmei Knab, 1916: 161
        (syn.) Culex territans authors, not Walker
      Culex (Culex) salinarius Coquillett, 1904b: 73 - Cassani & Newson 1980: 364
      Culex (Culex) tarsalis Coquillett, 1896: 43 - Cassani & Newson 1980: 364
        (syn.) Culex willistoni Giles, 1900: 281
        (syn.) Culex kelloggii Theobald, 1903b: 211
      Culex (Neoculex) territans Walker, 1856: 428 - Cassani & Newson 1980: 364-365
        (syn.) Culex saxatilis Grossbeck, 1905: 360
        (syn.) Culex frickii Ludlow, 1906a: 132
        (syn.) Culex apicalis authors before 1948, not Adams

    Culiseta Felt, 1904: 391
      Culiseta (Culiseta) alaskaensis (Ludlow, 1906b: 326 as Theobaldia) - ON (northern boreal, expect in Isle Royale)
        (syn.) Theobaldia arctica Edwards, 1920: 136
        (syn.) Culiseta siberiensis Ludlow, 1919: 151
      Culiseta (Culiseta) impatiens (Walker, 1848: 5 as Culex) - Cassani & Newson 1980: 365
        (syn.) Culiseta pinguis Walker, in Lord 1866: 337
        (syn.) Culiseta absobrinus Felt, 1904: 318
      Culiseta (Culiseta) incidens (Thomson, 1869: 443 as Culex) - (questionable Michigan record, per Cassani & Newson 1980: 365)
      Culiseta (Culiseta) inornata (Williston, 1893: 253 as Culex) - Cassani & Newson 1980: 365; Wilmot et al. 1992
      Culiseta (Climacura) melanura (Coquillett, 1902b: 193 as Culex - Cassani & Newson 1980: 365
      Culiseta (Culicella) minnesotae Barr, 1957: 163 - Cassani & Newson 1980: 365
      Culiseta (Culicella) morsitans (Theobald, 1901b: 8 as Culex (orig.) - Cassani & Newson 1980: 365
        (syn.) Culex dyari Coquillett, 1902b: 192
        (syn.) Culex brittoni Felt, 1905a: 79

    Orthopodomyia Theobald, 1904: 236
      Orthopodomyia alba Baker, 1936: 1 - Cassani & Newson 1980: 365, Wilmot et al. 1992
      Orthopodomyia signifera (Coquillett, 1896: 43 as Culex) - Cassani & Newson 1980: 365-366; Wilmot et al. 1992

    Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy, 1827: 412
      Psorophora (Psorophora) ciliata (Fabricius, 1794: 401 as Culex) - Cassani & Newson 1980: 366
        (syn.) Culex molestus Wiedemann, 1820: 7
        (syn.) Culex rubidus Robineau-Desvoidy, 1827: 404
        (syn.) Culex boscii Robineau-Desvoidy, 1827: 413
        (syn.) Culex conterrens Walker, 1856: 427
        (syn.) Psorophora ctites Dyar, 1918: 126
      Psorophora (Grabhamia) columbiae (Dyar & Knab, 1906a: 135 as Janthinosoma) - Wilmot 2012
        [note: Michigan records previously referred as Psorophora confinnis]
        (syn.) Janthinosoma texanum Dyar & Knab, 1906a: 135
        (syn.) Janthinosoma floridense Dyar & Knab, 1906a: 135
        (syn.) Janthinosoma toltecum Dyar & Knab, 1906a: 135
      Psorophora (Janthinosoma) ferox (Humbolt, 1819: 340 as Culex) - Cassani & Newson 1980: 366
        (syn.) Culex musicus Say, 1829: 149
        (syn.) Janthinosoma sayi Dyar & Knab, 1906b: 181, and Theobald, 1907: 181 [new name for J. musicus]
      Psorophora (Janthinosoma) horrida (Dyar & Knab, 1908: 56 as Aedes) - Cassani & Newson 1980: 366
      Psorophora (Janthinosoma) mathesoni Belkin & Heinemann, 1975: 363 - Cassani & Newson 1980: 366 (as P. varipes)
        (syn.) Conchyliastes varipes Coquillett, 1904a: 10
        (comb.) Psorophora varipies (Coquillett, 1904a)

    Toxorhynchites Theobald, 1901c: 234
      Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillett, 1896: 44 as Megarhinus (orig.) - MA, NY, OH, ON (may eventually make it into extreme southern Michigan)
        (syn.) Megarhinus septentrionalis Dyar & Knab, 1906c: 249
        (syn.) Megarhinus herrickii Theobald, 1906: 241

    Uranotaenia Lynch Arribálzaga, 1891: 375
      Uranotaenia (Uranotaenia) sapphirina (Osten Sacken, 1868 as Aedes) - Cassani & Newson 1980: 366
        (syn.) Uranotaenia coquilletti Dyar & Knab, 1906b: 187

    Wyeomyia Theobald, 1901c: 235
      Wyeomyia (Wyeomyia) smithii (Coquillett, 1901: 260 as Aedes) - Cassani & Newson 1980: 366; Bright coll.
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References - Distribution

    Cassani JR, Newson HD. 1980. An annotated list of mosquitoes reported from Michigan. Mosquito News 40: 356-368.
    Darsie Jr. RF, Ward RA. 2005. Identification and geographical distribution of the mosquitoes of North America, north of Mexico. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA. xiv + 383 p.
    Moore CG. 1999. Aedes albopictus in the United States: current status and prospects for further spread. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 15: 221-227.
    Rao PN, Rai KS. 1990. Genome evolution in the mosquitoes and other closely related members of superfamily Culicoidea. Hereditas 113: 139-144.
    Wilmot TR. 2000. Biology and vector status of Culiseta mosquitoes. Proceedings of the 14th Annual Conference, Michigan Mosquito Control Association. 66-69.
    Wilmot TR. 2012. Update on Michigan mosquitoes and mosquito control. Newsletter of the Michigan Entomological Society 57(1-2): 8-9.
    Wilmot TR, Henderson JM, Allen DW. 1987. Additional collection records for mosquitoes of Michigan. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 3(2): 318. PDF.
    Wilmot TR, Zeller DS, Merritt RW. 1992. A key to container-breeding mosquitoes of Michigan (Diptera: Culicidae), with notes on their biology. The Great Lakes Entomologist 25(3): 137-148. PDF.
    Wood DM, Dang PT, Ellis RA. 1979. The Insects and Arachnids of Canada. Part 6. The Mosquitoes of Canada (Diptera: Culicidae). Biosystematics Research Institute, Research Branch Agriculture Canada, Publication 1686: Ottawa, Canada. 390 pp.

References - Taxonomic

    Aitken THG. 1945. Studies on the anopheline complex of Western North America. University of California. Publications in Entomology 7: 273-364.
    Baker FC. 1936. A new species of Orthopodomyia, O. alba sp. n. (Diptera, Culicidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 38: 1-7, 1 pl.
    Barr AR. 1957. A new species of Culiseta (Diptera: Culicidae) from North America. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 59: 163-167.
    Belkin JN, Heinemann SJ. 1975. Psorophora (Janthinosoma) mathesoni, sp. nov. for “varipes” of the southeastern U.S.A. Mosquito Systematics 7: 363–366.
    Blanchard R. 1905. Les moustiques. Histoire naturelle et médicale. 673 pp, 316 figs. Paris.
    Cockerell TDA. 1918. The mosquitoes of Colorado. Journal of Economic Entomology 11: 195-200.
    Coquillett DW. 1896. New Culicidae from North America. The Canadian Entomologist 28: 43-44.
    Coquillett DW. 1901. Three new species of Culicidae. The Canadian Entomologist 33: 258-260. PDF.
    Coquillett DW. 1902a. Three new species of Culex. The Canadian Entomologist 34: 292-293.
    Coquillett DW. 1902b. New forms of Culicidae from North American. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 10: 191-194.
    Coquillett DW. 1902c. New Diptera from North America. Proceedings of the United States National Museum (1903) 25: 83-126.
    Coquillett DW. 1903a. Four new species of Culex. The Canadian Entomologist 35: 255-257.
    Coquillett DW. 1903b. A new Anopheles with unspotted wings. The Canadian Entomologist 35: 310.
    Coquillett DW. 1904a. Several new Diptera from North America. The Canadian Entomologist 36: 10-12.
    Coquillett DW. 1904b. Notes on Culex nigritulus. Entomological News 15: 73-74.
    Coquillett DW. 1904c. New North American Diptera. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 6: 166-192.
    Coquillett DW. 1906. A new Culex near curriei. Entomological News 17: 109.
    De Geer, C. 1776. Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire des Insectes 6: viii + 523 pp. Stockholm.
    Dyar HG. 1904a. The larva of Culex punctor Kirby, with notes on an allied form. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 12: 169-171, 1 pl.
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    Dyar HG. 1905. Remarks on genitalic genera in the Culicidae. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 7: 42-49, 1 fig.
    Dyar HG. 1916. New Aedes from the mountains of California (Diptera, Culicidae). Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus 4: 80-90. Dyar HG. 1917a. The mosquitoes of the Pacific Northwest (Diptera, Culicidae). Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus 5: 97-102, 1 pl. PDF.
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    Dyar HG. 1917c. A new Aedes from the Rocky Mountain region (Diptera, Culicidae). Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus 5: 127-128.
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    Dyar HG. 1919a. The mosquitoes collected by the Canadian Arctic Expedition, 1913-1918 (Diptera, Culicidae), pp. 31-33, 2 figs. in Anderson RM (ed.), Report of the Canadian Arctic Expedition 1913-1918 [q.v.]. Volume 3: Insects, Pt. C: Diptera, 90 pp., 2 figs., 10 pls. Ottawa, Ontario.
    Dyar HG. 1919b. Westward extension of the Canadian mosquito fauna (Diptera, Culicidae). Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus 7: 11-39.
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    Dyar HG. 1921a. Notes on the North American species of Choeroporpa (Diptera, Culicidae). Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus 9: 37-39.
    Dyar HG. 1921b. The American Aedes of the punctor group (Diptera, Culicidae). Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus 9: 69-80, 1 pl.
    Dyar HG. 1921. Two new mosquitoes from China (Diptera, Culicidae). Insectutor Inscitiae Menstruus 9: 147-148.
    Dyar HG. 1922. New mosquitoes from Alaska (Diptera, Culicidae). Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus 10: 1-3.
    Dyar HG, Knab F. 1906a. Diagnoses of new species of mosquitoes. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 19: 133-141.
    Dyar HG, Knab F. 1906b. The larvae of Culicidae classified as independent organisms. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 14: 169-230, 13 pls.
    Dyar HG, Knab F. 1906c. The species of mosquitoes in the genus Megarhinus. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections (1907) 48: 241-258.
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    Dyar HG, Knab F. 1918b. The genus Culex in the United States (Diptera, Culicidae). Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus (1917) 5: 170-183.
    Dyar HG, Ludlow CS. 1921. Two new American mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae). Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus 9: 46-50.
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    Edwards FW. 1920. On the use of the generic name Ceratopogon, Meigen (Diptera, Chironomidae). Annals and Magazine of Natural History ser. 9, 6: 127-130, 1 fig.
    Fabricius JC. 1794. Entomologia systematica emendata et aucta. Volume 4, 472 pp. Hafniae [=Copenhagen].
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    Felt EP. 1905b. Studies in Culicidae, pp. 442-497, figs. 1-21, pls. 1-19 in his 20th report of the State Entomologist on injurious and other insects of the State of New York, 1904. Bulletin of the New York State Museum [Entomology 24]: 359-564, 24 figs., 19 pls.
    Felt EP, Young DB. 1904. Importance of isolated rearings from culicid larvae. Science, new series 20: 312-313.
    Fitch A. 1847. Winter insects of eastern New York. American Journal of Agriculture and Science 5: 274-284.
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    Grossbeck JA. 1904a. Description of a new Culex. The Canadian Entomologist 36: 332.
    Grossbeck JA. 1904b. Description of two new species of Culex. Entomological News 15: 332-333.
    Grossbeck JA. 1905. New species of Culicidae. The Canadian Entomologist 37: 359-360.
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    Howard LO, Dyar HG, Knab F. 1913. The mosquitoes of North and Central America and the West Indes. Volume 2, Plates. Carnegie Instituion of Washington, Publications (1912) 159(2): i-x, 150 pls.
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    Knab F. 1916. A new mosquito from the eastern United States. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 29: 161-163.
    Linnaeus C. 1758. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae. Edition 10, Volume 1, 824 pp. Holmiae [=Stockholm].
    Lord JK. 1866. The naturalist in Vancouver Island and British Columbia. Vol. 2, 375 pp., 4 figs. London.
    Ludlow CS. 1905. Mosquito notes. -No. 4. The Canadian Entomologist 37: 385-388.
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Page edits:
    April 05, 2017
    • Revised the systematic organization of the Aedes genus to reflect Wilkerson et al. 2015; split references into sections for distribution and taxonomy.
    November 25, 2012
    • Added Ochlerotatus japonicus (Theobald, 1901), Psorophora columbiae (Dyar & Knab, 1906) as Michigan species, per Wilmot 2012
    • Beginning to keep track of changes to the web site pages

Page created: November 29, 2002 - Last updated: May 25, 2017 (EB)