Aquatic Insects of Michigan

by Ethan Bright, Museum of Zoology Insect Division and School of Natural Resources and Environment
University of Michigan

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Aquatic Diptera (True Flies) of Michigan

Except for a few families of flies of public health importance, or groups that have a certain ecological interest, our knowledge about the distribution of aquatic and semi-aquatic Diptera in Michigan (and elsewhere) is limited and poor. This poor state of affairs is no doubt due to the cornucopia of species in many families, sampling difficulties, and the state of current taxonomy. To fashion completed species lists for all the families listed in the navigation bar to the left will require years of collaborative work. This is an on-going project in its initial phase: please contact the author to communicate information regarding additional verified species records and locations.

The following families are listed on this page: (Nematocera) - Blephariceridae, Chaoboridae, Corethrellidae, Dixidae, Psychodidae and Ptychopteridae; (Brachycera) - Athericidae, Empididae, Muscidae, Pelecorhynchidae, Phoridae, Sarcophagidae, and Scathophagidae. The following families retain their own separate pages: (Nematocera) - Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Simuliidae; (Brachycera) - Ephydridae, Sciomyzidae, Syrphidae, Tabanidae.

Genera are denoted in green; species denoted in bold blue have been recorded in Michigan; species denoted in black bold are likely to occur in Michigan based on their known distribution with nearby state/provincial localities from which certified records have been published. You can use the Find function in your web browser to locate families, genera, and species. Synonomous species (indented) are listed below the current valid species (denoted in bold) with its taxonomic status indicated.

Nematocera

    BLEPHARICERIDAE Loew, 1861 (Net-winged midges)

    Found in fast-moving, clean and cold streams. Larvae use ventral suckers to which they adhere to the surfaces of rocks, often near the water surface or even above in the splash zone. Species of the Blepharicera tenuipes-group have been treated by Courtney (2000) and Jacobsen (2010). [Photo right: Blepharicera sp. Image from U.S. EPA Biological Indicators of Watershed Health, courtesy of EcoAnalysts, Inc.).

      Blepharicera Macquart, 1843
        Blepharicera tenuipes (Walker, 1848)
          (syn.) Asindulum tenuipes Walker, 1848
          (syn.) Blepharocera capitata Loew, in Osten Sacken 1878
          (syn.) Blepharicera Larva A, Hogue, 1978

    CERATOPOGONIDAE Newman, 1834 (No-See-Ums, Biting midges) (redirect to separate page)

    CHAOBORIDAE Newman, 1834 (Phantom midges)
    (Key to the Michigan Chaoboridae)

      Chaoborus Lichtenstein, 1800 (Subfamily Chaoborinae, Tribe Chaoborini)
        Chaoborus (Sayomyia) albatus Johnson, 1921
        Chaoborus (Chaoborus) americanus Johannsen, 1903 Corethra (orig.) - records at Cook-MSU
          (syn.) Sayomyia hudsoni Felt, 1904
          (syn.) Chaoborus crystallina Dyar & Shannon, 1924, in part
        Chaoborus (Schadanophasma) cooki SŠther, 1970 - MN, ON (expect in boreal woodland bogs and lakes in the UP)
          (syn.) Chaoborus nyblaei Cook, 1956 in part (not Zetterstedt)
        Chaoborus (Chaoborus) flavicans (Meigen, 1830) Corethra (orig.) - records at Cook-MSU
          (syn.) Corethra albipes Johannsen, 1903
          (syn.) Sayoyia rotundifolia Felt, 1904
          (syn.) Chaoborus plumicornis Wesenberg-Lund (ne Chaoborus Fabricius, 1914)
          (syn.) Chaoborus crystallina Dyar & Shannon (ne Chaoborus De Geer, 1924) pro parte
          (syn.) Chaoborus eluthera Dyar & Shannon, 1924
        Chaoborus (Sayomyia) punctipennis (Say, 1823) Corethra (orig.)
          (syn.) Corethra appendiculata Herrick, 1884
        Chaoborus (Schadanophasma) trivittatus (Loew, 1862) Corethra (orig.) - Borkent 1979
          (comb.) Sayomyia trivittata Felt, 1904
          (syn.) Corethra appendiculata Herrick, 1884
          (syn.) Corethra punctipennis Giles (nec Say), 1902
          (syn.) Sayomyia knabi Dyar, 1905
          (syn.) Chaoborus nyblaei Edwards, 1932, in part
          (syn.) Chaoborus nyblaei Cook, 1956 in part (not Zetterstedt)
          (syn.) Chaoborus brunskilli SŠther, 1970

      Eucorethra Underwood, 1903 (Subfamily Eucorethrinae)
        Eucorethra underwoodi Underwood, 1903 - WI, widespread
          (syn.) Pelorempis americanus Johannsen, 1903

      Mochlonyx Loew, 1844 (Subfamily Chaoborinae, Tribe Mochlonychini)
        Mochlonyx cinctipes (Coquillett, 1903) - WI, northern widespread
          (syn.) Corethra obscura Dyar & Shannon, 1924
        Mochlonyx velutinus (Ruthe, 1831) Corethra (orig.) - Cook-MSU
          (syn.) Tipula culiciformis De Geer, 1776
          (syn.) Corethra karnerensis Felt, 1904
          (syn.) Corethra lintneri Felt, 1904

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    CHIRONOMIDAE Newman, 1834 (Non-biting midges) (redirect to separate page)

    CORETHRELLIDAE Edwards, 1932 (Frog-biting midges)

      This widespread family of nemotocerous flies has not often been represented in collections, but the discovery of female blood-feeding on frogs has greatly improved our knowledge. Previously grouped with the Culicidae and then Chaoboridae, these midges have since 1986 been recogonized as a distinct family (Edwards 1932, Cook 1965, Wood and Borkent 1986, 1989).

      Larvae are found along the margins of aquatic habitats. Because female adults are attracted to the call of male frogs and feed on their blood, species are restricted to areas where there are frogs. There are no vouchered specimens of Corethrella from Michigan. Borkent's authoritative work (2004: 174) on Corethrella indicates two regional references, one from Wisconsin (Dickinson 1944) and another from Michigan (Rao and Rai 1990). Unfortunately, voucher specimens are not available, but if these are good records, based on existing distributions, these specimens may be either C. brakeleyi or C. condita.

        Corethrella Coquillett, 1902
          Corethrella (Corethrella) brakeleyi Coquillett, 1902
          Corethrella (Corethrella) condita Borkent, 2004

    DIXIDAE Schiner, 1868 (Dixid midges, Meniscus midges)
    (Key to the Dixidae of Michigan)

    This is a preliminary list of species based on records at UMMZ-Insect Division, Ann Arbor, Michigan, and the A. J. Cook Arthropod Research Collection, MSU, East Lansing, Michigan, as well as information in Hubert (1965).

      Dixa Meigen, 1818
        Dixa modesta Johannsen, 1903 - widespread

      Dixella Dyar and Shannon, 1924
        Dixella cornuta Johannsen, 1923 - Cook Museum, MSU
        Dixella indiana Dyar, 1925 - IN
        Dixella nova Walker, 1848

    PSYCHODIDAE Newman, 1832 (Moth flies)

    [under construction] Photo of adult by Sanjay Acharya 2009 (CCASA 3.0), larvae right by Erin Hayes-Pontius 2012 (CCASA 3.0)

      Pericoma Walker, 1856
        Pericoma(Clytocerus) americana Kincaid, 1901 - UMMZ (as P. interrupta)
          Pericoma interrupta Banks, 1907
        Pericoma(Pericoma) kincaidi (Quate, 1955) Psychoda (orig.)
        Pericoma (Pericoma) marginalis (Banks, 1894) Psychoda (orig.)
        Pericoma (Pericoma) scotiae (Curran, 1924) Psychoda (orig.) - NS-AB
        Pericoma (Pericoma) signata (Banks, 1901) Psychoda (orig.) - LB-MN
        Pericoma (Pericoma) slossosonae (Williston, 1893) Psychoda (orig.)
      Perithreticus Vaillant, 1973
        Perithreticus jonesi (Quate, 1955) Psychoda - check distribution
      Philosepedon Eaton, 1904
        Philosepedon interdicta (Dyar, 1928) Psychoda (orig.) - NY-WI
      Psychoda Latreille, 1796
        Psychoda alternata Say, 1824
        Psychoda cinerea Banks, 1894 - ON
        Psychoda lativentris Berden, 1952 - widespread
        Psychoda minuta Banks, 1894 - ME-MN
        Psychoda phalaenoides (Linnaeus, 1758) Tipula (orig.)
        Psychoda pusilla Tonnoir, 1922 - NY-WA
        Psychoda satchelli Quate, 1955 - ON
        Psychoda setigera Tonnoir, 1922 - MN, ON
        Psychoda trinodulosa Tonnoir, 1922 - MN, WI
        Psychoda umbracola Quate, 1955 - MN, WI
        Psychoda uniformata Haseman, 1907
      Telmatoscopus Eaton, 1904
        Telmatoscopus furcatus Kincaid, 1899 - UMMZ collection
          (syn.) Psychoda autumnalis Banks, 1914
        Telmatoscopus latipenis Quate, 1960 - WI
        Telmatoscopus nebraskensis Quate, 1955 - check distribution
        Telmatoscopus niger (Banks, 1894) Psychoda (orig.) - IN, NY, MN
        Telmatoscopus superbus (Banks, 1894) Psychoda - check distribution
        Telmatoscopus varitarsis (Curran, 1924) Psychoda (orig.) - check distribution
      Thornborghiella Vaillant, 1982
        Thornborghiella kincaidi (Quate, 1955) Psychoda (orig.) - check distribution
      Threticus Eaton, 1904
        Threticus bicolor (Banks, 1894) Psychoda (orig.) - NY-WI, check distribution

    PTYCHOPTERIDAE Osten-Sacken, 1862 (Phantom crane flies)
    (Key to the Ptychopteridae of Michigan)

    These are large, dark and interesting flies that resemble tipulid crane flies. Larvae are found in fine organic substrates in stagnant or slowly moving water of seeps and wetlands. Older literature references this family as Liriopeidae Meigen, 1800, which was suppressed by the ICZN in Opinion 678 in 1963. Note: species denoted in bold-blue have been recorded in Michigan, other are likely to be found in the state based on existed regional distribution records.

      Ptychoptera Meigen, 1803 (Subfamily Ptychopterinae)
        Ptychoptera metallica Walker, 1848 - source?
        Ptychoptera quadrifasciata Say, 1824 - records at Cook-MSU

      Bittacomorphella Alexander, 1916 (Subfamily Bittacomorphinae)
        Bittacomorphella (Bittacomorphella) jonesi (Johnson, 1905)

      Bittacomorpha Westwood, 1835 (Subfamily Bittacomorphinae)
        Bittacomorpha clavipes (Fabricius, 1781) Tipula (orig.)

    SIMULIIDAE Newman, 1834 (Black flies, Buffalo Gnats) (redirect to separate page)

Brachycera

    ATHERICIDAE Nowicki, 1873 (Water snipe flies)
    (Key to the Athericidae of Michigan)

    This family was erected by Stuckenberg (1973) for species in 7 genera formerly placed in the family Rhagionidae, including three aquatic species in the genus Atherix. Species of Nearctic Athericidae were reviewed by Webb (1977), with one record for A. lantha from Ann Arbor, and A. variegata is widespread in central and northern Michigan.

      Atherix Meigen, 1803
        Atherix lantha Webb, 1977
        Atherix variegata Walker, 1848 - Webb 1977; Kovalak 1978: 10

    DOLICHIPODIDAE Latreille, 1809 (Long-legged flies) (redirect to separate page)

    EMPIDIDAE Latreille, 1809 - Dance flies

    Records are based on a survey of material at UMMZ-Insect Division collection, literature records, and information provided by Dr. Bradley Sinclair.

    Genera are denoted in green; species denoted in bold blue have been recorded in Michigan; species denoted in black bold are likely to occur in Michigan based on their known distribution with nearby state/provincial localities from which certified records have been published. You can use the Find function in your web browser to locate families, genera, and species. Synonomous species (indented) are listed below the current valid species (denoted in bold) with its taxonomic status indicated. [Photo of Rhamphomyia adult from California (copyright 2005 Hartmut Wisch - used by permission].

      Chelifera Macquart, 1823 (Subfamily Hemerodromiinae)
        Chelifera obsoleta (Loew, 1862) Hemerodromia (orig.) - MacDonald 1994
        Chelifera palloris (Coquillett, 1895) Mantipeza (orig.) - MacDonald 1994
        Chelifera subnotata MacDonald, 1994 - NY, may be strictly Appalachian
      Chelipoda Macquart, 1823 (Subfamily Hemerodromiinae)
        Chelipoda contracta Melander, 1947 - MacDonald 1993
        Chelipoda elongata (Melander, 1902) Litanomyia (orig.) - MacDonald 1993
        Chelipoda truncata MacDonald, 1993 - MN, ON, WI, south to GA
      Clinocera Meigen, 1800 (Subfamily Clinocerinae)
        Clinocera binotata Loew, 1876 - record from Hillsdale Co., 21.v.1960, R.R. & K. Dreisbach (Sinclair 2008)
        Clinocera brunnea Sinclair, 2008 - Sinclair 2008 (1m, Alger Co., Munising, Alger Falls, 9.ix.1982, R. Hurley)
          (syn.) Clinocera sp. Landry & Harper, 1985
        Clinocera fuscipennis Loew, 1876 - IN, ON, WI, widely distributed
          (syn.) Clinocera brevitibia Melander, 1928
        Clinocera lineata Loew, 1862 - IN, MN, ON (Record from Lambton Co., near Arkona, is very close to Michigan)(Sinclair 2008), Holarctic distribution
        Clinocera maculata Loew, 1860 - Alger Co., Alger Falls, Munising, 9.ix.l992, RH (HSU); Montmorency Co., Hunt Ck, 15.ii.1941, J.W. Leonard (USNM) (Sinclair 2008)
        Clinocera stagnalis (Haliday, 1833) Heleodromia (orig.) - Keweenaw Co., Isle Royale, 9.vii.1938, George C. Steyskal (USNM) (Sinclair 2008)
          (syn.) Brachystoma westermanni Zetterstedt, 1838
          (syn.) Clinocera genualis Coquillett, 1910
      Dolichocephala Macquart, 1823 (Subfamily Clinocerinae)
        Previous Nearctic records of Dolichocephala irrorata (FallÚn, 1815) are based on misidentifications (Sinclair and MacDonald, 2012).
        Dolichocephala argus Melander, 1928 - ON, NS-BC-CA
        Dolichocephala vockerothi Sinclair & MacDonald, 2012 - Cheboygan Co., Sturgeon R. at Rondo [45.3168░N,-84.6225░W], 7.vii.1987, R. Hurley (1 #, MTEC); Marquette Co., 15mi SW Big Bay, 22ľ26.vi.1986, malaise trap, John F. MacDonald (1 ~, CNC) (Sinclair and MacDonald, 2012); based on record in Lambton Co., ON, expect this species in southern Michigan as well.
      Hemerodromia Meigen, 1822 (Subfamily Hemerodromiinae)
        Hemerodromia captus Coquillett, 1895 - MacDonald 1998
        Hemerodromia empiformis (Say, 1823) Ochthera (orig.) - ON, IN, MN, WI (MacDonald 1998)
        Hemerodromia melanosoma Melander, 1947 - MacDonald 1998
          (syn.) Hemerodromia haruspex Melander, 1947
        Hemerodromia oratoria (FallÚn, 1816) Tachydromia (orig.) - MacDonald 1998
        Hemerodromia sufflexa Melander, 1947 - IL, IN, MN, ON, NY
        Hemerodromia superstitiosa Say, 1824 - MacDonald 1998
          (syn.) Hemerodromia vittata Loew, 1862
          (syn.) Hemerodromia rogatoris Coquillett, 1895
        Hemerodromia vates Melander, 1947 - IN
      Metachela Coquillett, 1903 (Subfamily Hemerodromiinae)
        Most adults are collected by sweep netting riparian vegation, or the use of Malaise traps placed along and across stream (MacDonald 1989).
        Metachela albipes (Walker, 1849) Hemerodromia (orig.) - northern and western; expect in the UP (MacDonald 1989)
      Neoplasta Coquillett, 1895 (Subfamily Hemerodromiinae)
        Neoplasta deyrupi MacDonald & Turner, 1993 - IN, may be found in s. Lower Peninsula adjacent to Indiana
        Neoplasta scapularis (Loew, 1862) Hemerodromia (orig.) - MacDonald and Turner, 1993 (possibly a species complex)
      Oreogeton Shiner, 1860 (Subfamily Empidinae)
        Oreogeton obscurus (Lowe, 1864) Gloma (orig.) - NH-AK, widespread north
      Rhamphomyia Meigen, 1804 (Subfamily Empidinae)
        preliminary list
        Rhamphomyia americana Wiedemann, 1830 - widespread
        Rhamphomyia angustipennis Loew, 1861 - IL-NH
        Rhamphomyia aperta Loew, 1862 - IL-ME
        Rhamphomyia basalis Loew, 1864 - Melander 1965:462
        Rhamphomyia brevis Loew, 1861 - widespread
        Rhamphomyia compta Coquillett, 1895 - widespread
        Rhamphomyia debilis Loew, 1861 - MN, SK-ME
        Rhamphomyia dimidiata Loew, 1861 - IL, NY
        Rhamphomyia falcipedia Chillcott, 1959 - Melander 1965:463
        Rhamphomyia fumosa Loew, 1861 - UMMZ
        Rhamphomyia gilvipilosa Coquillett, 1895 - IL, QB
        Rhamphomyia gracilis Loew, 1861 - UMMZ (8/28/1929 record from Higgins Lake coll. George Steyskal, though species is indicated as eastern by Melander 1965)
        Rhamphomyia hirtipes Loew, 1864 - UMMZ (4/17/1979 record from St. Joseph Co. coll. H. D. Cameron)
        Rhamphomyia irregularis Loew, 1864 - UMMZ (5/12/1929 record from Oakland Co. coll. George Steyskal)
        Rhamphomyia laevigata Loew, 1861 - MT-QB, expect northern UP
        Rhamphomyia limbata Loew, 1861 - widespread northern
        Rhamphomyia longicauda Loew, 1861 - Melander 1965:464, UMMZ
        Rhamphomyia mutabilis Loew, 1862 - IL, east
        Rhamphomyia nana Loew, 1861 - widespread
        Rhamphomyia otiosa Coquillett, 1895 - CO-QB, NJ
        Rhamphomyia phemius Walker, 1849 - ON, widespread northern
        Rhamphomyia piligeronis Coquillett, 1895 - IL, ON
        Rhamphomyia priapulus Loew, 1861 - UMMZ (5/19/1979 record from Washtenaw Co. coll. H. D. Cameron, though species is indicated as eastern by Melander 1965)
        Rhamphomyia pulla Loew, 1861 - UMMZ (Schoolcraft Co., Washtenaw Co.)
        Rhamphomyia rustica Loew, 1864 - UMMZ (Arenac Co., Keweenaw Co., though species is indicated as eastern by Melander 1965)
        Rhamphomyia setosa Coquillett, 1895 - widespread northern
        Rhamphomyia sordida Loew, 1861 - UMMZ (4/30/1981 record from Washtenaw Co. coll. by H. D. Cameron, though species is indicated as eastern by Melander 1965)
        Rhamphomyia vara Loew, 1861 - UMMZ (5/29/1918 record from Washtenaw Co. coll. F. M. Gaige)
        Rhamphomyia virgata Coquillett, 1895 (6/1/1901 record from Washtenaw Co., unknown collector, identified by G. Steyskal)
        Rhamphomyia vittata Loew, 1862 - UMMZ (7/1/1938 and 6/25/1939 records from Wayne Co. coll. George Steyskal)
      Trichoclinocera Collin, 1941
        Trichoclinocera ctenistes (Melander, 1928) Wiedemannia (orig.)
        Trichoclinocera falcata Sinclair, 1994 - ON, expect in e. UP
        Trichoclinocera longipes (Walker, 1849) Heleodromia (orig.)
        Trichoclinocera pectinifemur Sinclair, 1994 - IN, OH, ON

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    EPHYDRIDAE Zetterstedt, 1837 (Shore flies) (redirect to separate page)

    Aquatic MUSCIDAE Latreille, 1802 (Muscoid flies, House flies)

    [under construction]

      Limnophora Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830
        Limnophora discreta Stein, 1898 - UMMZ
        Limnophora narona Walker, 1849 - UMMZ
      Lispe Latreille, 1797
        Lispe albitarsis Stein, 1898 - UMMZ
        Lispe brevipes Aldrich, 1913
        Lispe cotidiana Snyder, 1954
        Lispe nasoni Stein, 1898 - UMMZ
        Lispe nudifacies Snyder, 1954
        Lispe palposa Walker, 1849 - UMMZ
        Lispe sociabilis Loew, 1862 - UMMZ
      Lispoides Malloch, 1920
        Lispoides aequifrons (Stein, 1895) Limnophora (orig.) - UMMZ

    PELECORHYNCHIDAE Enderlein, 1922 (Pelecorhychid snipe flies)

    Older literature placed the genus Glutops in Rhagionidae, but a number of phylogenetic analyses of morphological and molecular data have supported Pelecorhynchidae as a distinct clad from Rhagionidae (Wiegmann et al. 2011), and Teskey's (1970) placement of Glutops in Pelecorhynichidae. Larvae of Glutops are sprawler burrowers, semi-aquatic, collected in damp margins of swampy areas.

      Glutops Burgess, 1878
        Glutops singularis Burgess, 1878 - east, but one record from BC, perhaps widespread

    PHORIDAE Curtis, 1833 (Humpbacked flies)

    Phorids are very small flies that are easily recognized by the small head and prominent pronotum, giving them a humpbacked appearance. Only the veins toward the foremargins of the wings are thickened; the others are weak and are not connected by cross veins. The hind femora are laterally flattened. The larvae are slightly flattened larvae and up to 4 mm long (www.entomology.ucr.edu).

    The definitive work on aquatic Phoridae is by Disney (1991). Two synanthropic cosmopolitan phorids (Dohmiphora cornuta and Megaselia rufipes) inhabit trickling sanitation filterbeds, and may be commonly encountered public restrooms and homes. Dohrniphora cornuta (Bigot), which is probably tropical in origin but has been transported around the world, has been found in the pitcher-plant species Sarracenia flava L. (Disney 1991) and thus may be found in our native S.purpurea L. (Sarraceniaceae). Megaselia orestes Borgmeier has also been found breeding in the western pitcher-plant species Darlingtonia californica (Torrey) (Disney 1991), but this is a western plant species and I am unaware of any records of this fly from Michigan.

      Dohrniphora Dahl 1898
        Dohrniphora cornuta (Bigot, 1857) Phora (orig.)

      Megaselia Rondani, 1856
        Megaselia orestes Borgmeier, 1966
        Megaselia rufipes (Meigen, 1804) Trineura (orig.)

    SARCOPHAGIDAE Macquart, 1834 - Flesh flies

    This is an overwhelmingly a terrestrial group, but the species of Fletcherimyia Townsend and one species of Sarcophaga Meigen are associated with pitcher plants (Sarracenia). Fletcherimyia larvae are borrowers that mine the bases of pitcher plants, scavaging the trapped remains of drowned invertebrates. Of this principally southeastern genus, one species approaches our area.

      Fletcherimyia Townsend, 1917 (=Blaesoxipha, in part)
        Fletcherimyia fletcheri (Aldrich, 1916) Sarcophaga (orig.) - NJ-MB

    SCATHOPHAGIDAE Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 - Dung flies

    These flies are generally lentic, shredders of vascular hydrophytes, but are also found in depositional zones of lotic systems. This list is under construction, and a survey of Michigan records and material has not yet been done.

      Cordilura FallÚn, 1810 - lentic-vascular hydrophytes (emergent zone) - burrowers-miners (plant stems) - shredders-herbivores (miners of Scirpus, Juncus, and Carex), predators (engulfers) of Ceratopogonidae
      Hydromyza FallÚn, 1813 - lentic-vascular hydrophytes (submerged and floating zones) - burrowers-miners (plant stems and roots) - shredders-herbivores (miners in petioles of Nuphar, roots of Potamogeton)
      Orthacheta Becker, 1894 - lentic-vascular hydrophytes (emergent zone) - burrowers-miners (plant stems) - predators (engulfers)
      Spaziphora Rondani, 1856 - lentic-littoral (sewage beds in oxidation ponds) - sprawlers - scrapers, collectors-gatherers

    SCIOMYZIDAE FallÚn, 1820 - Marsh Flies (redirect to separate page)

    STRATIOMYIDAE Latreille, 1804 - Soldier Flies (redirect to separate page)

    TABANIDAE Latreille, 1802 - Horse and Deer Flies (redirect to separate page)


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References

    Baier TM. 1999. A revision of the flavidus group of the genus Chrysops Meigen (Diptera: Tabanidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 101(1):175-196.
    Borkent A. 1979. Systematics and bionomics of the species of the subgenus Schadonophasma Dyar and Shannon (Chaoborus, Chaoboridae, Diptera). Quaestiones Entomologicae 15(2):122-255.
    Cook EF. 1965. Chaoboridae, pp. 102-105 in A Catalog of the Diptera of America North of Mexico. Stone A, Sabrosky CW, Wirth WW, Foote RH, Coulson JR. (Editors). Agricultural Research Service, Agricultural Handbook 267, United States Department of Agriculture. Smithsonian Institution Press 1983 reprint: Washington, D. C. iv + 1696.
    Courtney GW. 2000. Revision of the net-winged midges of the genus Blepharicera Macquart (Diptera: Blephariceridae) of eastern North America. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Washington 23: 1-101.
    Disney RHL. 1991. The aquatic Phoridae (Diptera). Entomologica scandinavica 22:171-191.
    Fisher TW, Orth RE. 1983. The marsh flies of California (Diptera: Sciomyzidae). Bulletin of the California Insect Survey 24. 117 p. Hays KL. 1956. A synopsis of the Tabanidae (Diptera) of Michigan. Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 98:1-79.
    Hilsenhoff. 1995. Aquatic Insects of Wisconsin. Keys to Wisconsin Genera and Notes on Biology, Habitat, Distribution and Species. Natural History Museums Council Publication Number 3, University of Wisconsin-Madison. 79 p.
    Hubert AA. 1965. Dixidae, pp. 100-102 in A Catalog of the Diptera of America North of Mexico. Stone A, Sabrosky CW, Wirth WW, Foote RH, Coulson JR. (Editors). Agricultural Research Service, Agricultural Handbook 267, United States Department of Agriculture. Smithsonian Institution Press 1983 reprint: Washington, D. C. iv + 1696.
    Jacobsen AJ. 2010. Phylogenetic analysis of the Nearctic Blepharicera Macquart (Diptera: Blephariceridae) with an emphasis on the eastern Blepharicera tenuipes group Hogue. PhD diss., University of Tennessee, 2010. http://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_graddiss/889.
    James, MT. 1965. Stratiomyidae, pp. 299-319 in A Catalog of the Diptera of America North of Mexico. Stone A, Sabrosky CW, Wirth WW, Foote RH, Coulson JR. (Editors). Agricultural Research Service, Agricultural Handbook 267, United States Department of Agriculture. Smithsonian Institution Press 1983 reprint: Washington, D. C. iv + 1696.
    Knutson L, Orth RE, RozkoÜnř R. 1990. New North American Colobaea, with a preliminary analysis of related genera (Diptera: Sciomyzidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 92(3):483-492.
    MacDonald JF. 1989. Review of Nearctic Metachela Coquillett, with description of a new species (Diptera; Empididae; Hemerodromiinae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 91(4):513-522.
    MacDonald JF. 1994. Review of the Nearctic species of the genus Chelifera Macquart (Diptera; Empididae; Hemerodromiinae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 96(2):236-275.
    MacDonald JF, Turner WJ. 1993. Review of the genus Neoplasta Coquillett of America north of Mexico (Diptera; Empididae; Hemerodromiinae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 95(3):351-376.
    McFadden, MW. 1967. Soldier fly larvae in America north of Mexico. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 121(3569):1-72.
    Merlander AL. 1965. Family Empididae (Empidae, Hybotidae), pp. 446-481 in A Catalog of the Diptera of America North of Mexico. Stone A, Sabrosky CW, Wirth WW, Foote RH, Coulson JR. (Editors). Agricultural Research Service, Agricultural Handbook 267, United States Department of Agriculture. Smithsonian Institution Press 1983 reprint: Washington, D. C. iv + 1696.
    Orth RE, Knutson L. 1987.
    Systematics of snail-killing flies of the genus Elgiva in North America and biology of E. divisa (Diptera: Sciomyzidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 80(6):829-840.
    Pechuman, LL, Webb, DW, Teskey, HJ. 1983. The Diptera, or true flies, of Illinois. I. Tabanidae. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 33(1):1-122.
    Peters TM. 1981. Family Dixidae, p. 329-333 in Manual of Nearctic Diptera. Volume 1. McAlpine JF, Peterson BV, Shewell GE, Teskey HJ, Vockeroth JR, Wood DM (cordinators). Research Branch, Agriculture Canada. Monograph 27. Ottawa. vi + 674 p.
    Philip, CB. 1965. Tabanidae, pp. 319-342 in A Catalog of the Diptera of America North of Mexico. Stone A, Sabrosky CW, Wirth WW, Foote RH, Coulson JR. (Editors). Agricultural Research Service, Agricultural Handbook 267, United States Department of Agriculture. Smithsonian Institution Press 1983 reprint: Washington, D. C. iv + 1696.
    Peters TM, Cook EF. 1966. The Nearctic Dixidae (Diptera). Miscellaneous Publications of the Entomological Society of America 5: 231-78.
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    Sinclair BJ. 2008. The systematics of New World Clinocera Meigen (Diptera: Empididae: Clinocerinae). NRC Research Press, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, viii+245 pp.
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    Stuckenberg, BR. 1973. The Athericidae, a new family in the lower Brachycera (Diptera). Annals of the Natal Museum 21(3):649-673.
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Page edits:
    December 09, 2013
    • Added Rhamphomyia species, preliminary list based on Melander 1965 and UMMZ records
    • Removed Neoplasta scapuliformis (Empididae), as it is western (MacDonald and Turner, 1993)
    • Added Sinclair 2008 reference
    November 21, 2012
    • Beginning to keep track of changes to the web site pages
    • Some families with many species are retained as separate lists (web pages)
    • Removed individual pages for families into one long list, families accessed from left menu via anchor redirects within page

Page created: February 02, 2002; Last edited: November 04, 2013 (EB)