Aquatic Insects of Michigan

by Ethan Bright, Museum of Zoology Insect Division and School of Natural Resources and Environment
University of Michigan

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Tabanidae - Horse and Deer Flies

Because adult females of most species are hemophagous (blood feeding), there has been considerable interest in this group of flies. Most people are familar with Chrysops, the common deer flies of wooded areas, or the large horse flies of Tabanus. Larval ecologies and range information are from Hays (1956), Pechuman et al. (1983), and Baier (1999), supplemented by Philip (1965). Some species are terrestrial, or are not associated with aquatic habitats, and where possible these are indicated below.

    Atylotus Osten Sacken, 1876 (Subfamily Tabaninae, Tribe Tabanini)
      Atylotus bicolor (Wiedemann, 1821) Tabanus (orig.) - Hays 1956: 35; Pechuman et al 1983: 61 (map); Teskey 1990: 260-262
        (syn.) Tabanus fulvescens Walker, 1848
        (syn.) Tabanus ruficeps Macquart, 1855
      Atylotus duplex (Walker, 1854) Tabanus (orig.) - Hays 1956: 37 (as A. pemeticus); ON (Teskey 1990: 262-263, eastern but expect in southeastern MI)
        (syn.) Atylotus pemeticus of some authors, not Johnson, 1921
        (syn.) Tabanus imitans Walker, 1848
      Atylotus hyalicosta Teskey, 1983 - MN, ON, widespread northern (Teskey 1969: 88-89, imagures as Atylotus sp. A; Teskey 1990: 265-267)
      Atylotus intermedius (Walker, 1848) - Hays 1956: 35 (as Atylotus incisuralis, Isle Royale); see Burger 1995: 55 (note A. insuetus, of which incisuralis (Macquart, 1941) is a junior synonym, is found MB west)
        (orig.) Tabanus intermedius Walker, 1848: 143
        (syn.) Atylotus incisuralis authors, not (Macquart, 1847)
      Atylotus ohioensis (Hine, 1901) Tabanus (orig.) - Hays 1956: 36; Pechuman et al. 1983: 61-62 (map)
        (syn.) Tabanus pruinosus Hine, 1900
      Atylotus sphagnicolus Teskey, 1983 - ON (northeastern, but records from west and southern Ontario suggest it may be found in Michigan)
        (syn.) Atylotus pemeticus of most authors, not Johnson 1921
      Atylotus thoracicus (Hine, 1900) Tabanus - Hays 1956: 37; Pechuman et al. 1983: 62 (map); Teskey 1990: 276-277
      Atylotus woodi Pechuman, 1981 - IL, ON, WI (Pechuman et al. 1983: 62-63; Teskey 1990: 279-280)

    Chrysops Meigen, 1803 (Subfamily Chrysopsinae, Tribe Chrysopsini)
      Chrysops aberrans Philip, 1941 - Hays 1956: 19; Pechuman et al. 1983: 35-36 (map)
      Chrysops aestuans Wulp, 1867 - Hays 1956: 23-24; Pechuman et al. 1983: 36-37 (map)
        (syn.) Chrysops moerens Walker, 1848
      Chrysops ater Macquart, 1850 - Pechuman et al. 1983: 37 (map)
        (syn.) Chrysops carbonarius nubiapex Philip, 1955
        (syn.) Chrysops fugax Osten Sacken, 1875
      Chrysops atlanticus Pechuman, 1949 - Hays 1956: 21; however, Baier (1999: 178-181) lists this species as from salt marshes and brackish pools along the Atlantic coastal only, so this record from Alcona Co. (coll. George Steyskal) may be an error
      Chrysops beameri Brennan, 1935 - IL, IN, OH (Pechuman et al.1983: 39), expect in southern MI
      Chrysops brunneus Hine, 1903 - Hays 1956: 20; Baier 1999: 181-183
      Chrysops callidus Osten Sacken, 1875 - Hays 156: 24; Cooney 2012: 4
      Chrysops calvus Pechuman & Teskey, 1967 - Pechuman et al. 1983: 40 (map)
      Chrysops carbonarius Walker, 1848 - Hays 1956: 16; Cooney 2012: 4
      Chrysops celatus Pechuman, 1949 - Pechuman et al. 1983: 41; Baier 1999: 183-184
      Chrysops cincticornis Walker, 1848 - Hays 1956: 15-16 (as C. celeris); Pechuman et al. 1983: 41-42 (map)
        (syn.) Chrysops celeris Osten Sacken, 1875
      Chrysops cuclux Whitney, 1879 - Hays 1956: 14-15
      Chrysops dacne Philip, 1955 - Hays 1956: 30; however, see Pechuman et al. 1983: 42-43
      Chrysops dawsoni Philip, 1959 - MN east (Philip 1965: 325)
      Chrysops delicatulus Osten Sacken, 1875 - Hays 1956: 22-23: Teskey 1990: 89-90
      Chrysops dimmocki Hine, 1905 - Philip 1947: 272; Hays 1956: 26-27; Philip 1965: 325
      Chrysops excitans Walker, 1850 - Hays 1956: 14; Pechuman et al. 1983: 43-44 (map)
        (syn.) Chrysops lumbalis Harris, 1925
      Chrysops flavidus Wiedemann, 1821 - Hays 1956: 20-21; Pechuman et al. 1983: 44-45 (map); Baier 1999: 187-189
        (syn.) Chrysops pallida Macquart, 1836
        (syn.) Chrysops canifrons Walker, 1848
        (syn.) Chrysops pallidus Bellardi, 1859
      Chrysops frigidus Osten Sacken, 1875 - Hays 1956: 28; Pechuman et al. 1983: 45 (map)
        (syn.) Chrysops canadensis Kröber, 1926
      Chrysops furcatus Walker, 1848 - Philip 1947: 274
        (syn.) Chrysops lupus Whitney, 1904
      Chrysops geminatus Wiedermann, 1828 - Hays 1956: 29 (as C. g. geminata); Pechuman et al. 1983: 46 (map)
        (syn.) Chrysops fallax Osten Sacken, 1875
      Chrysops impunctus Kröber, 1926 - Pechuman et al. 1983: 46-47 (map)
      Chrysops indus Osten Sacken, 1875 - Hays 1956: 31
        (syn.) Chrysops pilumnus Kröber, 1926
      Chrysops luteopennis Philip, 1936 - Philip 1965: 326; Pechuman et al. 1983: 48 (map)
      Chrysops macquarti Philip 1961 - Pechuman et al. 1983: 48 (map)
      Chrysops mitis Osten Sacken, 1875 - Hays 1956: 16-17; Pechuman et al. 1983: 49 (map)
      Chrysops moechus Osten Sacken, 1875 - Hays 1956: 25; Pechuman et al. 1983: 50 (map)
      Chrysops montanus Osten Sacken, 1875 - Hays 1956: 24-25; Pechuman et al. 1983: 50 (map)
      Chrysops niger Macquart, 1838 - Hays 1956: 15; Pechuman et al. 1983: 50 (map)
        (syn.) Chrysops taylori Philip, 1955
      Chrysops nigripes Zetterstedt, 1838 - widespread northern boreal
      Chrysops pikei Whitney, 1904 - Hays 1956: 25-26; Pechuman et al. 1983: 52 (map)
      Chrysops pudicus Osten Sacken 1875 - Hays 1956: 19; Pechuman et al. 1983: 52 [semiaquatic: in wet soils along aquatic margins (Baier 1999)]; Teskey 1990: 121-122
      Chrysops sackeni Hine, 1903 - Hays 1956: 20; Pechuman et al. 1983: 53-54 (map)
      Chrysops sequax sequax Williston 1887 - Hays 1956: 26; Pechuman et al. 1983: 54-55 (map)
      Chrysops shermani Hine, 1907 - Hays 1956: 17
      Chrysops sordidus Osten Sacken, 1875 - Hays 1956: 13-14; Philip 1965: 327
      Chrysops striatus Osten Sacken, 1875 - Hays 1956: 18; Pechuman et al. 1983: 55-56 (map)
      Chrysops univittatus Macquart, 1855 - Hays 1956: 31-32, and 22 (as C. wiedemanni); Pechuman et al. 1983: 56-57 (map)
        (syn.) Chrysops wiedemanni Kröber, 1926
        (syn.) Chrysops fraternus Kröber, 1926
      Chrysops venus Philip, 1949 - Hays 1956: 27-28; Teskey 1990: 131-132
      Chrysops vittatus Wiedemann, 1821 - Hays 1956: 17-18; Pechuman et al. 1983: 57-58 (map); Cooney 2012: 4
        (syn.) Chrysops areolatus Walker, 1848
        (syn.) Chrysops lineatus Jaennicke, 1867
        (syn.) Chrysops ornatus Kröber, 1926

    Diachlorus Osten Sacken, 1876 (Subfamily Tabaninae, Tribe Diachlorini)
      Diachlorus ferrugatus (Fabricius, 1805) - northeast IN, expect in s. Michigan (Pechuman et al. 1983: 59-60 (map))
        (syn.) Tabanus americanus Palisot de Beauvois, 1819
        (syn.) Diabasis ataenia Macquart, 1838
        (syn.) Chrysops approximans Walker, 1848
        (syn.) Chrysops convergens Walker, 1848
        (syn.) Tabanus ronsanii Bellardi, 1859

    Goniops Aldrich, 1892 (Subfamily Pangoniinae, Tribe Scionini)
      Goniops chrysocoma (Osten Sacken, 1875) Pangonia (orig.) - Hays 1956: 32; Pechuman et al. 1983: 20 (map); (not aquatic; eggs laid in and larvae live in moist soil and leaf mold)
        (syn.) Goniops hippoboscoides Aldrich, 1892

    Haematopota Meigen, 1803 (Subfamily Tabaninae, Tribe Haematopotini)
      Haematopota americana Osten Sacken, 1875 - Hays 1956: 34 (as Chrysozona americana); (Teskey 1990: 137-138)
        (comb.) Chrysozona americana, Philip 1947: 286
      Haematopota champlaini (Philip, 1953) Chrysozona (orig.) - ON (Teskey 1990: 139), expect in northwestern UP or Isle Royale
      Haematopota rara Johnson, 1912 - OH (disjunct population of eastern species; Pechuman et al. 1983: 60 (map); Teskey 1990: 139-140

    Hybomitra Enderlein, 1922 (Subfamily Tabaninae, Tribe Tabanini)
      Hybomitra affinis (Kirby, 1837) Tabanus (orig.) - Hays 1956: 48-49; Teskey 1990: 173-175
        (syn.) Tabanus triligatus Walker, 1854
      Hybomitra arpadi (Szilady, 1923) Tabanus (orig.) - Hays 1956: 48 (as H. gracilipalpis; Teskey 1990: 177-178
        (syn.) Tabanus gracilipalpis Hine, 1923
        (syn.) Tabanus cristatus Curran, 1927
      Hybomitra astuta (Osten Sacken, 1876) Tabanus (orig.) - Hays 1956: 52; Pechuman et al. 1983: 106-107 (map)
      Hybomitra aurilimba (Stone, 1938) Tabanus (orig.) - MN? (Philip 1965: 338), s. ON east (Teskey 1990: 182-183)
      Hybomitra cincta (Fabricius, 1794) Tabanus (orig.) - Hays 1956: 40-41; Pechuman et al. 1983: 107 (map)
      Hybomitra criddlei (Brooks, 1946) Tabanus (orig.) - Hays 1956: 47-48; Teskey 1990: 190-191
      Hybomitra difficilis (Wiedemann, 1828) Tabanus (orig.) - Hays 1956: 41-42; Pechuman et al. 1983: 107 (map)
      Hybomitra epistates (Osten Sacken, 1878) Tabanus (orig.) - Hays 1956: 50-51; Pechuman et al. 1983: 107-108 (map); Teskey 1990: 193-194
        (syn.) Tabanus socius Osten Sacken, 1876
      Hybomitra frontalis (Walker, 1848) Tabanus (orig.) - Hays 1956: 54-55 (as H. frontalis frontalis and H. frontalis spetentrionalis); Pechuman et al. 1983: 108-109 (map)
        (syn.) Tabanus incisus Walker, 1848
        (syn.) Tabanus septentrionalis Loew, 1856
        (syn.) Tabanus labradorensis Enderlein, 1925
        (syn.) Tabanus canadensis Curran, 1927
      Hybomitra hinei (Johnson, 1904) Tabanus (orig.) - Hays 1956: 44; Pechuman et al. 1983: 109
        (syn.) Tabanus politus Johnson, 1900
      Hybomitra illota (Osten Sacken, 1876) Tabanus (orig.) - Hays 1956: 53; Pechuman et al. 1983: 109
      Hybomitra lasiophthalma (Macquart, 1838) Tabanus (orig.) - Hays 1956: 42-43; Pechuman et al. 1983: 110 (map); Cooney 2012: 4
        (syn.) Tabanus punctipennis Macquart, 1847
        (syn.) Tabanus notabilis Walker, 1848
        (syn.) Tabanus fretus Stone, 1938
        (syn.) Tabanus guttiferus Harris, 1925
        (syn.) Tabanus redactus Walker, 1850
      Hybomitra liorhina (Philip, 1936) Tabanus (orig.) - Hays 1956: 45-46; Teskey 1990: 211-213
      Hybomitra longiglossa (Philip, 1931) Tabanus (orig.) - see Philip 1954: 32; MN, widespread northern<
      Hybomitra lurida (Fallén, 1817) Tabanus (orig.) - Hays 1956: 44-45 (as H. metabola); Pechuman et al. 1983: 110-111 (map)
        (syn.) Tabanus metabolus McDunnough, 1922
      Hybomitra microcephala (Osten Sacken, 1876) Tabanus (orig.) - Hays 1956: 51-52; Pechuman et al. 1983: 111 (map)
      Hybomitra minuscula (Hine, 1907) Tabanus (orig.) - Hays 1956: 49; Pechuman et al. 1983: 111-112 (map)
      Hybomitra nitidifrons nuda (McDunnough, 1921) Tabanus (orig.) - Hays 1956: 43 (as H. nuda)
        (comb.sp.) Tabanus nitidifrons Szilady, 1914
        (comb.) Tabanus nuda McDunnough, 1921
      Hybomitra pechumani Teskey & Thomas, 1979 - Pechuman et al. 1983: 112 (map)
      Hybomitra rhombica (Osten Sacken, 1876) Tabanus (orig.) - Hays 1956: 45; however, see Teskey 1990 :226-227, as Hays' identifcation may be of H. osburni (Hine, 1904); WI, north and boreal west
      Hybomitra sodalis (Williston, 1887) Tabanus (orig.) - Hays 1956: 46 (as H. trispila); Pechuman et al. 1983: 112-113 (map)
        (syn.) Tabanus aestivalis Harris, 1925
        (syn.) Tabanus trispilus Wiedemann, 1828
        (syn.) Hybomitra trispila spp. sodalis Pechuman, 1960
        (syn.) Therioplectes trispilus, Osten Sacken, 1878
      Hybomitra tetrica (Marten, 1883) Therioplectes (orig.) - Hays 1956: 54 (as H. tetrica hirtula); Teskey 1990: 243-244
        (syn.) Tebanus tetrica var. hirtula (Bigot, 1892) as Teherioplectes; as sp.
        (syn.) Tylostypia laticornis Enderlein, 1925 (preocc. Hine, 1904)
      Hybomitra trepida (McDunnough, 1921) Tabanus (orig.) - Hays 1956: 49-50; Teskey 1990: 245-247
      Hybomitra typhus (Whitney, 1904) Tabanus (orig.) - Hays 1956: 52-53 (may be H. pechumani), however, see Teskey 1990: 247-248 (eastern species reaching ON)
      Hybomitra zonalis (Kirby, 1837) Tabanus (orig.) - Hays 1956: 47; Teskey 1990: 248-251 (map)
        (syn.) Tabanus tarandi Walker, 1848
        (syn.) Tabanus terraenovae Macquart, 1850
        (syn.) Tabanus flavocinctus Bellardi, 1859

    Merycomyia Hine, 1912 (Subfamily Chrysopsinae, Tribe Bouvieromyiini)
      Merycomyia whitneyi (Johnson,1904) Tabanus (orig.) - ON (disjunct population) Pechuman et al. 1983: 20-21, map; Teskey 1990: 40-41; may not reach Michigan
        (syn.) Merycomyia mixta Hine, 1912
        (syn.) Merycomyia geminata Hine, 1912

    Stonemyia Brennan, 1935 (Subfamily Pangoniidae, Tribe Pangoniini)
      Stonemyia rasa (Loew, 1869) Pangonia (orig.) - Hays 1956: 33; Pechuman et al. 1983: 19-20 (map)
      Stonemyia tranquilla (Osten Sacken, 1875) Pangonia (orig.) - Hays 1956: 33-34; see also Teskey 1990: 37 (map), 39
        (comb.) Corizoneura tranquilla, Surcouf, 1921
        (comb.) Buplex tranquilla, Beaquaert, 1924

    Tabanus Linnaeus, 1758 (Subfamily Tabaninae, Tribe Tabanini)
      Tabanus americanus Forster, 1771 - Hays 1956: 69; Pechuman et al. 1983: 79 (map); Teskey 1990: 302
        (syn.) Tabanus plumbeus Drury, 1773
        (syn.) Tabanus ruficornis Fabricius, 1775
        (syn.) Tabanus limbatus Palisot de Beauvois, 1806
      Tabanus atratus Fabricius, 1775 - Hays 1956: 68-69; Pechuman et al 1983: 79-80; Teskey 1990: 303-304
        (syn.) Tabanus americanus Drury, 1773
        (syn.) Tabanus niger Palisot de Beauvois, 1806
        (syn.) Tabanus validus Wiedemann, 1823
      Tabanus calens Linnaeus, 1758 (not aquatic) - Hays 1956: 63; Pechuman et al. 1983: 80-81; Teskey 1990: 305-306
        (syn.) Tabanus giganteus De Geer, 1776
        (syn.) Tabanus lineatus Fabricius, 1781
        (syn.) Tabanus pallidus Palisot de Beauvois, 1809
        (syn.) Tabanus bicolor Macquart, 1847
        (syn.) Tabanus coesiofasciatus Macquart, 1855
      Tabanus catenatus Walker, 1848 - Philip 1947: 304; Teskey 1990: 306-308 (not aquatic)
      Tabanus fairchildi Stone, 1938 - Hays 1956: 65-66; Pechuman et al. 1983: 82-83 (map); Teskey 1990: 308-309
      Tabanus fulvicallus Philip, 1931 - Philip 1947; Hays 1956: 65 (Isle Royale); Teskey 1990: 311-312
      Tabanus limbatinevris Macquart, 1847 - Hays 1956: 62 (as T. abdominalis); Pechuman et al. 1983: 84-86; Teskey 1990: 315-316
        (syn.) Tabanus abdominalis Osten Sacken, 1876, not Fabricius (1805), misid.
      Tabanus lineola Fabricius, 1794 - Hays 1956: 59-60 (as T. lineola lineola); Pechuman et al. 1983: 86; Teskey 1990: 316-318
      Tabanus marginalis Fabricius, 1805 - Hays 1956: 64-65 (as T. nivosus); Pechuman et al. 1983: 86-87 (map); Teskey 1990: 318-319
        (syn.) Tabanus nivosus Osten Sacken, 1876
      Tabanus nigrescens Palisot de Beauvois, 1809 - Hays 1956: 69-70; Pechuman et al. 1983: 88-89 (map)
      Tabanus nigripes Wiedemann, 1821 - Hays 1956: 62; Pechuman et al. 1983: 89 (map); Teskey 1990: 320-322
        (syn.) Tabanus coffeatus Malquart, 1847
      Tabanus novaescotiae Macquart, 1847 - Hays 1956: 64 (as T. actaeon); Pechuman et al. 89-90 (map); Teskey 1990: 323-325
        (syn.) Tabanus actaeon Osten Sacken, 1876
      Tabanus pumilus Macquart, 1838 - Hays 1956: 67; Pechuman et al. 1983: 92; Teskey 1990: 325-327
      Tabanus quinquevittatus Wiedemann, 1821 - Hays 1956: 59; Pechuman et al. 1983: 92-93; Teskey 1990: 328-329 (semiaquatic to terrestrial, tolerant of a variety of soils)
        (syn.) Tabanus costalis Wiedemann, 1828
        (syn.) Tabanus manifestus walker, 1850
        (syn.) Tabanus vicarius Walker (in part), 1848
        (syn.) Tabanus baltimorensis Macquart, 1855
      Tabanus reinwardtii Wiedemann, 1828 - Hays 1956: 60-61; Pechuman et al. 1983: 93 (map); Teskey 1990: 330-332
        (syn.) Tabanus erythrotelus Walker, 1850
      Tabanus sackeni Fairchild, 1934 - (not aquatic); Hays 1956: 58; Pechuman et al. 1983: 93-94; Teskey 1990: 332-333
      Tabanus sagax Osten Sacken, 1876 - Hays 1956: 58; Pechuman et al. 1983: 94: Teskey 1990: 334-335
        (syn.) Atylotus baal Townsend, 1895
        (syn.) Tabanus dawsoni Philip, 1931
      Tabanus similis Macquart, 1850 - Hays 1956: 60 (as T. lineola scutellaris); Pechuman et al. 1983: 94-95 (map); Teskey 1990: 337-338
        (syn.) Tabanus scutellaris Walker, 1850
        (syn.) Tabanus lineola scutellaris Walker, of authors
      Tabanus sparus Whitney, 1879 - Hays 1956: 67-68 (as T. sparus sparus and T. sparus milleri); Pechuman et al. 1983: 95-96; Teskey 1990: 338-339
      Tabanus stygius Say, 1823 - Hays 1956: 70; Pechuman et al. 1983: 96; Teskey 1990: 342-343
      Tabanus subniger Coquillett, 1906 - Hays 1956: 70; Pechuman et al. 1983: 97 (map); Teskey 1990: 343-344
        (syn.) Tabanus nigricans Johannsen 1935, not Wiedemann (1828) misid.
      Tabanus subsimilis Bellardi, 1859 -IL, IN, OH, expect in s. MI (Pechuman et al. 1983: 97-98)
        (syn.) Tabanus vittger schwardti Philip, 1942
      Tabanus sulcifrons Macquart, 1855 - Hays 1956: 61; Pechuman et al. 1983: 98-99 (map); Teskey 1990: 344-345; not aquatic, may tolerate saturated conditions
        (syn.) Tabanus variegatus Fabricius, 1805
        (syn.) Tabanus tectus Osten Sacken, 1876
        (syn.) Tabanus exul Osten Sacken, 1878
      Tabanus superjumentarius Whitney, 1879 - IL, IN, OH, expect in s. MI (Pechuman et al. 1983: 99; Teskey 1990: 346
      Tabanus trimaculatus Palisot de Beauvois, 1806 - Hays 1956: 57-58; Teskey 1990: 347-348
      Tabanus vivax Osten Sacken, 1876 - Philip 1953: 436; Pechuman et al. 1983: 101-102 (map); semiaquatic, in semibog-like habitats bordering organic substrates (Teskey 1990: 348-349)
        (syn.) Tabanus arborealis Stone, 1935

References

    Baier TM. 1999. A revision of the flavidus group of the genus Chrysops Meigen (Diptera: Tabanidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 101(1):175-196.
    Burger JF. 1995. Catalog of Tabanidae (Diptera) of North America north of Mexico. Contributions on Entomology, International 1(1):1-100.
    Cooney P. 2012. Personal experiences with tabanids. Newsletter of the Michigan Entomological Society 57(1-2): 4.
    Hays KL. 1956. A synopsis of the Tabanidae (Diptera) of Michigan. Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 98. 79 p.
    Pechuman, LL, Webb, DW, Teskey, HJ. 1983. The Diptera, or true flies, of Illinois. I. Tabanidae. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 33(1):1-122.
    Philip CB. 1947. A catalog of the blood-sucking fly family Tabanidae of the Nearctic Region North of Mexico. American Midland Naturalist 45: 310-314.
    Philip CB. 1965. Tabanidae, pp. 319-342 in A Catalog of the Diptera of America North of Mexico. Stone A, Sabrosky CW, Wirth WW, Foote RH, Coulson JR. (Editors). Agricultural Research Service, Agricultural Handbook 267, United States Department of Agriculture. Smithsonian Institution Press 1983 reprint: Washington, D. C. iv + 1696.
    Teskey HJ. 1969. Larvae and pupae of some eastern North American Tabanidae (Diptera). Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 63:1-147.
    Teskey HJ. 1990. The Insects and Arachnids of Canada. Part 16. The Horse Flies and Deer Flies of Canada and Alaska (Diptera: Tabanidae). Research Branch, Agriculture Canada. Publication 1838. 381 pp.

Page edits

    December 27, 2012
    • Michigan record of Chrysops atlanticus (Hays 1956: 21, collected by George Steyskal) should be considered doubtful; Baier (1999: 178-181) indicates this salt-tolerant species is coastal along the Atlantic, and not from Michigan.
    November 18, 2012
    • Thorough review of Hays 1956, Pechuman et al. 1983, and Teskey 1990 for synonyms, range distributions, and correct identification. A number of species not in Hays 1956 were added, but others removed because of the later two references of misidentifications and subsequent taxonomic work

Acknowledgments

    Thanks to Steve Smith (Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada) for additional information and corrections.

Page created: November 29, 2002, Last updated: November 04, 2013 (EB)